Kingston upon Hull War Memorial 1914 - 1918

The story of Hull in World War One

Our Loss

A great many people from Hull lost their lives in World War 1. 

There are over a hundred families on the Hull Memorial that lost two or more of their family. Each was an individual tragedy.

What follows here are snippets about some of those people.

Over, 7,500 Hull men died in the First World War. Over 1,200 of these were sailors working with the fishing fleet, or serving with the Merchantile Marine, the Royal Navy and the Royal Navy Reserve. They carried out vital war work, bringing in supplies, transporting troops and minesweeping the seas

There were nearly another 1,500 men who were born in Hull, but who lived elsewhere. They died fighting for Australia, Canada, New Zealand and America. There are many others, who enlisted in Hull or who were associated with the City, but are not usually remembered on Hull war memorials. As Hull had four large hospitals and was the port of entry for repatriated prisoner of wars, servicemen from all over the world are buried in Hull. The Kingston Upon Hull Memorial aims to remember all those with a Hull connection who died in the First World War.

There are over a hundred families on the Hull Memorial that lost two or more of their family. Sometimes fathers, sons and brothers were lost on the same day. Some families lost three sons, other Hull families lost four sons, including all their children in the First World War. At least one in six Hull families lost a direct relative. Many others would lose close friends, work colleagues or others known to them. Each death was irreplaceable and an individual tragedy for someone.

Unfortunately, not all deaths were recorded in official casualty figures, particularly if soldiers died of sickness, accidents or were discharged home with wounds, of illness. By 1924 the Ministry of Pensions reported that there were 20,000 war wounded living in Hull. Although they survived the war, they are rarely recorded on war memorials. What follows here are snippets of some of those people who died, whose deaths were reported in the local newspapers. 

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Hull in the First World War

The Outbreak of War in Hull

On Tuesday, 4th August 1914, at 11pm, Great Britain declared war on Germany. It was a gloriously, sunny, Bank Holiday and holiday makers were disappointed that the trains on the North East railway lines had been cancelled for troop transport. The news was greeted by an outbreak of excitment and patriotism. Crowds gathered outside the Hull Daily Mail offices, in Whitefriargate, to hear the news. When Germany refused the ultimatum to withdraw from Belgium, a cheer and patriotic singing broke out. The next day saw hysteria in the shops with panic food buying and hoarding. There was a sudden scarcity of sugar and fruit as the Wilson Line ships were detained in the ports of Hamburg. Prices rose and supplies fell, until order was restored. Hull was full of troops called up and on the move. The Territorial Army was mobilised to defend Britain, while the Regulars were sent to France. The 4th and 5th (Cyclist) Battalions of the East Yorkshire Regiment marched to the coast and dug in, ready for invasion. The Royal Field Artillery from Wenlock barracks were recalled to Hull from Dundee. Some 300-400 reservists of the regular army left Paragon station for Chatham and other depots. The Posterngate shipping office was busy with Royal Navy Reserve, 'hard looking, wirey men', responding to the call, to sign on. Guards were placed on factories and power supplies to prevent sabotage, hospitals were prepared to accept casualties, and appeals for volunteers went out. The docks were full of vessels, as Hull's 400 fishing trawlers headed for the safety of home. Hull's Fish Dock was full of a flotilla of ships from the Red Cross and Hellyer's fleets. Amidst of all this activity, the Government passed the Defence of the Realm Act (DORA) on 8th August 1914. This gave it far reaching powers over people. Land and property could be seized for military use, suspected spies could be arrested and imprisoned. Strict censorship of the Press was enforced. In effect, the country was placed under martial law. Tradesman surrendered their horses at the Carr Lane livery stables and motor vehicles were commandeered by army officers in Hull. Sir Mark Sykes, Hull's Central MP, mobilised 1000 Yorkshire farm waggoners from his estates, which caused a blow to farmers and the local harvest. Father Le Clerc, Chaplain of Endsleigh convent, left Hull to join the 13th French Regiment. Lady Nunburnholme, appealed for volunteers to join First Aid classes and nursing courses, at her VAD, Head Quarters, in Peel Street, Springbank.

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The Belgium Refugees

The German invasion of neutral Belgium and the stories of their attrocities towards the Belgiums was a powerful weapon in uniting Britain's support for the war and in recruitment. On 9th September 1914 Hull established it's War Refugee Committee to assist refugees until the end of the war. It's HQ was based at Bowalley Lane and it had 500  volunteer helpers, 400 of which were women. This was a registered war charity that relied entirely on voluntary aid. The committe's work was twofold. First, to offer hospitality to Belgium residents in their area and secondly to give relief to those disembarking at their ports. This included giving temporary relief with accommodation, food and clothes and for more permanent cases rent free lodgings and allowances for food, clothes and heating. For those who could work, jobs were sought for them. On the whole the refugees were found to be sober, industrious and gracious and many became self supporting during their stay in Britain. The Hull War Refugee Committe for Belgium , in its final report, stated that 1,249 refugees were asisted of whih 612 were entertained and 637 were given some temporary material aid. In total, the Committee had received £10, 386 in voluntary subscriptions, donations and collections. This was used to assist and maintain refugees and aid their repatriations.

Support Services

'Soldiers Clubs' were raised in Hull to help serving men. A Soldiers Club with reading room was located at Beverley Road baths on Stepney Lane and run by Major A J Atkinson and his wife.No automatic alt text available.

'Soldiers & Sailors Wives Club' was formed on Mason Street by Mrs Hubert Johnson, the wife of the Lord Mayor. It was devoted to provide relaxation for the wife's of servicemen away from home. 

Paragon Railway Station housed a popular 'Rest Station and canteen' well used by departing troops. It was set up in September 1914 and staffed throughout the war by Voluntary Aid Detachments (VAD). 

'Peel House' at 150 Spring Bank, was the VAD headquarters, and run by the Lady Mayor. Peel House helped train nurses and locate hospital accommodation for soldiers posted to Hull. It also sent out thousands of parcels of clothing and essentials to troops home and abroad. War Correspondents in France were struck by the way East Yorkshire Units were looked after by people back home. Its most renowned work was sending thousands of food and clothing parcels, plus other necessities to Prisoners of War. This work was extended to captured seaman and interned civilians. Peel House raised public funds to fund their work. The residents of Freehold Street created a bread fund and distributed food to Prisoner of War through Peel House.Image may contain: one or more people, crowd and outdoor

Recruitment

Large numbers of men rushed to enlist in the Army. Recruitment drives were launched, these appealed to men's patriotism and sense of duty.  Local authorities and prominent people took the initiative in recruiting and equipping 'Pal' Battalions, confident in the fact that the war office would take them over. This allowed work-mates and friends to serve together and was hugely popular. 30,000 men had joined by the end of August 1914, and 2 milllion men volunteered by the time conscription came in 1916.  In eleven weeks Hull raised enough men to form four infantary battalions (4,000 men in all). The battalions were given unofficial names, reflecting the mens backgrounds. For example, the 1st Hull Pal Battalion, were known as the 'Commercials' because its recruits were from Hull's commercial and office sector. Other Hull Battalions were made up of local 'Tradesmen', 'Sportsmen', and Railway workers. The motives for joining were varied - a desire to travel, to escape low paid work, for adventure, but above all a genuine idealism and patriotism. This was the base on which the New Armies and Pal's battalions  were formed. Local papers reported on families at war, that had joined the cause. The 'Hull and Lincolnshire Times', of 29th May 1915, reported on James Fray, of 72 Flinton Street, with seven family members enlisted, Sergeant, Herbert Thundercliff, wounded at 48 Beeton Street, with ten family members serving and Mr TG Marshall, of 96 St Georges Road, with five sons serving and another 15 family members enlisted, including nephews and son in laws.

However, in 1915, the flow of volunteers was insufficient to meet the army's needs and public opinion began to turn towards the 'slackers' - those men who had not enlisted. In October, Lord Derby, the Director of Recruitment asked all men, aged 18 to 41 to "attest" - to say they that they would join up when called. Men were divided into married and single groups and young, single men would be called up first, before married men. Arm bands were issued to attested men, to spare them the humiliation of being labelled as 'slackers'. This voluntary recruitment initiative failed to produce the numbers of recruits needed and was replaced with compulsory conscription.  On the 5th January 1916, the Military Service Act deemed all single men between 18 and 41 to have enlisted, a second Act in May, extended this to all men between 18 and 41. Finally, with the crises of 1918, a third Act in April, extended the age limit up to 51. However, few of the older conscripts saw action at the Front - rather they formed a home defence force. No automatic alt text available.

Hull's contribution during the First World War is often underestimated. As a North Eastern, coastal City with a population of approximately 300,000, Hull citizens served extensively across all branches of the British Army, Royal Navy, Merchant Navy, Royal Air Force, and the Home Defence. They also died serving Commonwealth nations, such as Canada, Australia and New Zealand where they had emigrated. The outbreak of war in 1914 aroused great enthusiasm in Hull and within the first six months 20,000 local men had enrolled. Hull was also attacked by Zeppelins and it raised its own Pals Battalions. The Great War affected everyone. At home there were wounded soldiers in military hospitals, refugees from Belgium and later on German prisoners of war. There were food and fuel shortages and disruption to schooling. The role of women changed dramatically and they undertook a variety of work undreamed of in peacetime. 

Hull formed its own four 'Pal' Battalions, the 10th, 11th, 12th & 13th service Battalions of the East Yorkshire Regiment, which made up the 92nd Infantry Brigade, 31st Division. Due to its coastal locality and economic and social make up, Hull formed its own 'bantam' regiment made up of men of small stature, with "big hearts". Hull formed  its own heavy artillery and Garrison Brigade to defend the Humber estuary. The 17th Northumberland Fusiliers, a Railway Pal's Battalion was also formed at King George's Dock in Hull. 

Due to its maritime history, Hull men also served throughout the world, in the Royal Navy, Royal Marines, Royal Naval Reserve, Merchant Service and the Hull Fishing Feet. Hull's population fell by about 45,000 during the First World War. 75,000 men served in the war effort. Over 7,500 Hull men were killed and over 14,000 were wounded during the First World War. Many of these lived men in the same streets or terraces, which was to make the casualties keenly felt by the local community. The numbers of wounded increased over time, causing considerable hardship for Hull families. The Hull Lord Mayor, Alderman, Hargreaves, reported on 21st February 1919, that 14,000 Hull men had been wounded in the war of which 7,000 had been maimed. Some 12,000 Hull women had also been dealt with by the local Pensions Committee. On 9th September 1924, the Ministry of Pensions recorded that this had increased to 20,000 disabled ex servicemen from Hull, and they were dealing with 2,500 Hull widows, 200 motherless and fatherless children and 3,000 Hull mothers and other near dependents. Hull City Council established a Great War, Civic Trust, to assist with the large numbers of widows, wounded and orphans left after the War. This ran until 1963 and raised £165,000. 

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 WW1 Victory Parade, Queen Victoria Square, Hull,  1918

 

 Thank You to "Hull, the Good Old Days" Facebook, for the above photos.

Hull Mariners

Many Hull Mariners and experienced Skippers were lost during the First World war. The oldest may have been Joseph William Atkinson, Chief of the Steamship ‘Tummell’ (Hull). He was lost at sea on the 24th February 1916, aged 64 years. The youngest to die in the war were often in the same ship crews. For example, George Edward Johnson, George Edward Plewes and Vincent Michael Nolan were all lost on different ships in 1917. Each was only 14 years old when they died.

Hull Memorials

Image may contain: 1 person, sitting and tableWe tend to approach war memorials with pathos and a narrative about the futility of war, but the generation that built them were actually proud of them. People wanted to show the pride of sacrifice. They even experienced joy that their fathers, husbands and sons, had stepped up to the plate in the time of need. War memorials were defined in positive terms - as 'Defence against aggression', for 'Justice', 'Liberty' and Glory'. They were a sign of a colossal generational effort to "end all wars, for humanity" and celebrate the gift, that those who fell, gave to future generations. There were all sorts of ideas put forward for commemorating the war and the people who fought in it, which resulted in a wide variety of memorials. There were official tokens of remembrance in the form of memorial plaques, issued to relatives of the fallen and commemorative “Peace” medals. Charitable care for ex-Servicemen was begun under the auspices of the Flanders Poppy Fund. The red poppy is now internationally recognized as a symbol of Remembrance, with its roots in the tragedy of the First World War. Memorial rolls of honour were put up in factories, sports clubs, railway stations, schools, and universities. Church windows were designed and dedicated to military units or individuals. Memorial buildings were constructed to provide “living memorials”, for example, as community centres, places for rehabilitation or worship.

After the First World War, communities were keen to erect memorials to remember their dead. Over 5,000 memorials were raised in towns across Britain, in the first two years after the War, and some 37,000 exist today in public spaces, in various forms. The demand for war memorials lasted many years and many were not completed until long after the war.

The first and earliest war memorials in Hull, were the 'Street Shrines' or 'Rolls of Honour', These were created in the early years of the war to commemorate all those locally serving in the armed forces. The idea of Street War memorials started in the East end of London, but it was soon adopted in towns, such as St Albans, and became particularly widespread in Hull. (The Photo right is the Bellamy Street WW1 Street Shrine.)

In 1915, St Marks Church was the first to errect a large, wooden board, on the railings outside, showing all the men from St Marks Street serving in the war. The Memorials took many shapes, forms and styles. Some included only those directly involved from the street, others included relatives from other streets. Some 'Roll of Honours' covered large areas, such as Wilmington and Sculcoates, which included many streets. A great deal of work went into designing these 'Rolls of Honour'. Committees were set up and Ladies went round collecting names, information and money. The names of servicemen, were often written on paper scrolls, or scratched onto wooded boards, and displayed prominently on Street corners. The memorials were often so highly decorated, with flowers, flags and patriotic pictures, that they took the form of 'Street Shrines'. There was keen competition between Streets for the best memorials. Montrose Avenue, boasted the finest Street Memorial, Courtney Street the largest, and Northumberland Avenue drew the largest crowds. The opening ceremonies were grand affairs, with bands, choirs, hundreds of people attending and widely reported in the local newspapers. It was reported that the unveiling of the Wilmington Roll of Honour, on the 12th November 1916, attracted over 10,000 people (HDM 13/11/16). Some opening ceremonies caused incidents, such as the unveiling of the New George Street memorial, on the 8th October 1916. Here, Thomas Boast, the local Greengrocer, had failed to display a flag in his shop, and was attacked by a crowd for being unpatriotic. For example, Emily Atkin, from New George Street and Alice Brown, from Scott Street, were fined £5 for breaking his shop window and accusing his wife of being 'Austrian'. E H Nozedar St Charles WW1 Memorial Hull

While Street memorials were widely popular, they relied on the goodwill of residents to maintain them. Inevitably these 'Rolls of Honour', could not keep pace with conscription, or the movement of men between regiments and armed services, during the four and half years of war. There was also some opposition to the memorials, with people refusing to include their names or saying that the money should be spent on the troops. Some complained that names had been mis-spelt, left out or ignored. Others were forced to move after the death of their husbands and their connection with the street was forgotten. The memorials were often too small to record the increasing numbers of casualties. For example, Bean Street, lost at least 93 men in the War; Waterloo Street 75; Barnsley Street 59; Walker Street 52, Spyvee Street, 51; and thousands of men died from the Hessle Road, Beverley Road and Holderness Road areas. The declining enthusiasm for war, meant that many Street memorials were not updated after 1916. For example, the current Eton Street, marble memorial, bears little resemblance to its original, which included many more names of men killed in the war. As well as these ommissions, there were also spelling mistakes, wrong intials or nicknames used on street shrines which compromised their accuracy. Sometimes the same servicemen appeared on several memorials, as they moved address, or were included by relatives in different streets. Also, as most 'Street Shrines' were only designed as temporary structures, they were not long lasting. The Courtney Street memorial was not updated after 1916 and fell into dis-repair. It was discovered years later in a shop attic and re-errected in 1924. Many Street memorials were destroyed during the Second World War blitz, which devastated Hull. Others were lost through slum clearance in the 1970's and post war reconstruction. For example, the Portland Street Shrine, was removed for safety in 1941, and placed in St Stephen's church , which was then destroyed in the Blitz, in the same year. Only Waller Street attempted to update their memorial after the war, but this has now disappeared. Just a few examples of Hull Street memorials survive today. Most notably, these are at Sharp Street, Newland Avenue, and Eton Street, on Hessle Road. Some other examples of street shrines are also preserved in the Hull Transport museum. Street Memorials were never repeated during the Second World War.

The following 'Street Shrine' details were reported in the Hull Daily Mail during 1916. They give some idea of the popularity of Street Memorials, and the large numbers of men who enlisted. They also indicate the impact of casualties on these Hull communities.

 

Alexandra Street, Warne Street and Sutton Street shared a memorial, which showed 250 names; 

Brighton Street - 129 men joined up;

Bellamy Street - 51 houses, 38 men serving, and 3 fallen by 16/10/1916;

Crystal Terrace, Courtney Street - 15 houses, 13 serving;

Conway Street , Rosamond Street, and Sefton Street memorials showed 167 men serving, seven of which had been killed by 12/9/1916;

Chiltern Street - 103 men serving;

Eastbourne Street - 113 names, 13 killed by 8/9/1916;

Epworth Street - 26 houses, 31 men serving, 1 killed, 2 wounded. Private, A Teasdale awarded the DCM. (HDM 29/11/16)

Emmeline Terrace, St Paul's Street - 19 houses & 32 men serving;

Flinton Street & St Andrew's Street Shrine - 300 names with 22 sailors and fishermen lost at sea.

Gillett Street, - its Roll of Honour showed 325 names, of which 24 were dead, by 30/8/1916;

Grange Street - reported 179 men, of which 5 had been killed and two had lost limbs, by 26/9/1916;

Havelock Street - 127 names and one killed - 8/9/1916; 

Lockwood Street, shows that the Tock family at No:21 have 11 family members serving, including 7 sons. There are also 4 Gorrods, 3 Keeches, 3 Lamberts, and 4 Woods serving. By 1916 it already shows 16 killed, 2 wounded and 2 Prisoners of War.

Lorne Street - 8 killed, 19 wounded, 2 Prisoners of war and 2 others discharged.

Manchester Street - 170 men serving and 5 killed - 30/8/1916;

Montrose Avenue, Gibson Street had 19 houses with 31 men serving, including five brothers. By 28/11/1916, three had been killed, one was missing and 11 others had been wounded.

Northumberland Avenue Shrine - 228 men served, of which 7 were killed, 2 drowned, 1 died, 1 died of wounds, 15 wounded, 6 Prisoners of War, and Private, J L Elston, EYR was awarded the DCM.

Osborne Street - 163 serving from 115 houses. Six men from one house, 13 killed, 13 wounded & 1 prisoner of war (HDM 30/10/16)

Portland Street and New Garden Street - 98 men serving and 7 killed, by 30/10/1916;

Porter Street and Michael Street - 116 men serving from 88 houses, of which 14 had been killed, 14 wounded, three of them wounded three times, and three others were Prisoners of War.

Providence Row - 181 men serving, and 12 reported killed by 19/9/16.

Rose Street - 50 houses, 66 men and one Nurse serving, 20/9/1916;

Spyvee Street Shrine showed 140 names of men serving;

Strickland Street - 130 names - 24 killed and 3 Prisoners of War; 

Walker Street - 300 men had enlisted by 26/9/1916.

Waterloo Street, Sarah Ann Terrace,  - 31 houses, 35 men serving, 3 killed and 2 wounded;

Wellsted Street Memorial showed 235 men serving by 26/9/1916; 

Wilmington Roll of Honour - listed 460 names of those serving (HDM 13/11/16)

Witty Street -70 men serving, of which 2 had been killed;

Worthing Street - 93 names & 5 killed by 19/9/1916;

Wyndham Street, Grosvenor Avenue, - 8 houses & 8 men serving.

Hull had many more Street Memorials during the First World War. While these have now largely disappeared you can search this website to find the casualties on each street in Hull. This website records over 9,000 men from Kingston Upon Hull, or with a Hull connection, that died in the First World War. Their addresses come from local newspapers, army records, census information, electoral registers, or local trade directories.

Many Hull firms, such as Reckitt's and the Wilson Shipping Line had workplace memorials. The Hull & Barnsley Railway Company, displayed a bronze plaque, with the names, of 183 men killed in the war. Unlike Belgium, France and Italy, the majority of Britain's 750,000 war dead, are buried abroad and have no known graves. The British Government did not repatriate the war dead. This distance, absence from home, and deep sense of loss, has remained a strong part of family histories ever since. It is the reason why war memorials continue to be important in Britain, and commemorating the First World War still remains heartfelt, even after a 100 years.

 

Hull Street Memorials                                                                                          

Below is a 'Street Shrine' on Hessle Road, and examples of other Hull 'Rolls of Honour' at Newington Street, Courtney Street, St Marys, Sculcoates Lane, Sharp Street, Aldbro Street, West Dock Avenue, Pulman Street and Evans Square, Stoneferry, Wilmington, Grange Street, Victor Street and the Groves area of Hull.Image may contain: 9 people

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(The Crowle Street Memorial Plaque above)

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No automatic alt text available.Workplaces also created their own war memorials. Hull's world famous Reckitt's firm, saw 70 of its men join at the outbreak of war and by 1917, 820 men had enlisted. A total of 1,108 Reckitt employees, served from its world wide workforce, with 153 employees killed and 50% of the remainder wounded or disabled. In tribute to their service, Sir James Reckitt errected a memorial fountain in the grounds of its Hull Office. The picture to the right shows the Hull Post Office memorial at their sorting Office, in St Peter's Street. The Hull and Barnsley Railway Line commissioned a bronze plaque listing the 178 employees who died in the First World War. The Hull Post Office, lost at least 46 employees. Schools also produced their own war memorials. Hymers school memorial, contains the names of 116 former Hull pupils. Hull Grammar school memorial lost 88 ex pupils in the Great War. The Clifton Street School Memorial (below) recorded 66 pupils killed in the First World War. Hull's Municipal Technical College, listed 52 former students on their Park Street memorial. The names of 28 Hull teachers are recorded on a bronze tablet mounted in Hull's Guildhall .

The 'ww1hull.org.uk' site, recreates these memorials, to highlight Hull's forgotten history. After the War, remembrance became paramount, to ensure that the dead had not died in vain, and because so many men had no known grave. Like London, Hull built its own cenotaph to remember its war dead. It was erected at Paragon Square, Ferensway, to a design by T. Harold Hughes. Paid entirely through public donations, at a cost of £24,000, the Cenotaph was built by Quibell and Son (Hull), and unveiled on the 20th September 1924. The Hull Cenotaph is a simple, design, devoid of any representations of heroism and victory, or any religious symbolism. It provides a blank canvas for the viewer to project their own feelings of war. Hull's Cenotaph remains a successful design. Even today, it still evokes the eternal, human feelings, of death and loss. It bears the following inscription:-

ERECTED TO THE MEMORY OF THE MEN OF KINGSTON-UPON-HULL WHO LAID DOWN THEIR LIVES FOR THEIR COUNTRY IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918 AND IN THE WORLD WAR 1939-1945 THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE. In front, is the South African War Memorial (1899-1902) unveiled on 5th November 1904.

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As a practical memorial to those who survived, Hull established the City of Hull Great War Trust, in 1918. It was funded through voluntary donations and used to help those wounded and disabled and the dependents of those lost in the war. The Great War Trust was a unique idea pioneered in Hull and helped men and women from all forces, including the fishing fleet and mercantile marine. The Trust distributed nearly £300,000 and assisted over 4,000 people before it was closed in 1983.

On the 16th October 1927, the Kingston Upon Hull War Memorial was unveiled at the French village of Oppy. This remembered the men of Kingston-upon-Hull and all local units who gave their lives in the Great War: Many of the casualties of 31st Division who died at Oppy were from the Hull area. The ground of which the memorial stands was donated by the Vicomte and Vicomtesse du Bouexic de la Driennays in memory of their 22 year old son Pierre, an NCO of the French 504th Tank Regiment who was killed in action at Guyencourt on 8 August 1918. It too, is located on the village square of Oppy.

 

(Clifton Street School 1914-18 Memorial, Hull)ww1_Oppywood_memorial.jpg

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(Pictures above include:the Bronze plaque of the Hull Technical college, Park Street: Hull Boys Club Memorial formerly at Roper Street; the marble Post Office memorial, St Peter's Square, Hull; Clifton Street School Roll of Honour 1914-18, Hull's Cenotaph memorial, Paragon Square, and the Hull Kingston Memorial, Oppy Wood, France.) For other memorials see the following link

 http://www.hull-peoples-memorial.co.uk/Database/Memorials/Memorials.php

 

 

 Thank You to "Hull, the Good Old Days" Facebook, for the above photos.

Hull Riots

When war began, there was much anti German feeling in Britain. This had been brewing for many years with the growth of the German navy and fear of a German invasion. An atmosphere of hate towards anything German gre during the war. This was frequently seen in rioting that occured against people suspected of being sympathetic toward the Germans. Hull was no exception and in many ways was a divided city with much prejeduice. At the start of the war, all German residents had to register with the authorities. The Hull Times reported that by the 7th August 1914, 170 people in Hull had done so, and of these, a half had been detained. However, there were many people who were either of German descent or naturalised British subjects and they became the target of mob hatred. In Hull mny of the pork butcher shops were owned by such people, and with names being prominent, they became an obvious target. The first such incident occurred on Saturday, 24th October 1914, outside the pork butcher's shop of Mr C.H. Hohenrein. A large crowd gathered outside the shop and two men were arrested for being drunk and disorderly, they were arguing as to whether the shop should stay open. However, Mr Hohenrein, although of German descent, was a British citizen, patriotic and supportive of the war effort. A more serious riot happened on Saturday, 15th May 1915, when a large crowd of 500 people moved down Hessle Road, attacking shops suspected of being owned by Germans. The Hull Daily Mail reported that the shops of a Mr Schumm and Mr Steeg, both pork butchers on Hessle Road, both had windows smashed. Also in Charles Street, Mr Lang's shop was attacked. In all these cases the owners were naturalised British subjects, (in Mr Schumm's case, for forty years), and fully supportive of the war.

In response to trawler losses, (8 Hull Trawlers were sunk on one day - the 3rd May 1917), mounting war casualties and the first Zeppelin raid on Hull, on 6th June 1915, which murdered women and children and made many homeless, Anti German demonstrations again broke out throughout Hull. Women were amongst the most rowdy demonstrators, as feelings on their men away at war spilled over. These demonstrations lasted 3 days in Hull. There were 50 reported incidents of violence and many arrests for public disorder. Anything German became a target. Four German owned shops on Hessle Road and a pork butcher on Charles Street were attacked by angry crowds of up to 700 people. A mother and daughter were charged with stealing furniture from German shops, a man stole a mattress, others stole food. A German Grand Piano was destroyed. Another pork butcher's shop called, Hohenrein, at 22 Princes Avenue, was attacked and threatened several times. The damage and theft in Hull was substantial. The Watch Commitee Minutes for 27th August 1915 lists 49 claims for damages by people you suffered during the 15th May riot, and many of the names are distinctly German. In all some £258,000, was eventually paid out in Hull for compensation. The German Zeppelin raid on Hull 6th June 1915, effectively decimated the long standing, German community, in Hull. German churches, culture and businesses declined in Hull thereafter. Many Germans left Hull and those who remained changed their names, including the Hohenrein family, who changed their name to Ross to deter protestors. In the case of Mr William Schumm, he changed his name to Shaw to avoid further trouble.                                   http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p01qvvf8

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Other naturalised citizens, like the Gohl family, who were not German, but from Austrian and Danish descent, suffered the same discrimination. They changed the pronunciationof their name (from Goal to Goll) to avoid recriminations in the war, and issued public notices to show that the Gohl family was serving Britain during the war. Julius Gohl had arrived in Hull, from Hamburg in the 1867, at the age of two. He married an English woman, Susannah Carter in 1887. Together they established a very successful wholesale and retail confectionery business, with shops in prime locations, and a factory/warehouse in Hull. The outbreak of war in 1914 was a great tragedy for the whole family, as having the surname GOHL meant that Julius and Susannah were classified as “enemy aliens”. This was despite five of their children, all British born, serving with the armed forces. When Britain declared war on Germany, Britain hurriedly introduced the “Alien Restriction Act “ where all 'aliens' where required to report and register with the police. Julius placed an advert in the Hull Daily Mail showing the family's dedication to King and Country. The illustration left, shows the 5 Gohl sibblings in military attire. Edward Gohl was killed in the war and Harry was wounded. The Gohl's sweet shop at 73 Queens Street was also damaged in a Zeppelin raid, which no doubt helped dispelled any local hostility towards the Gohl family.

Many culprits of the 'anti German' violence were unpunished or shown leniency. One particularly perpetrator escaped a prison sentence by enlisting in the army. Hatred of everything German increased and showed itself in the most detestable ways. A Hull born man, who probably did not know that his father was German, until showed a birth certificate, was dismissed from his post in the Work House. His 'Guardian' found it necessary to confess that he'd known him for 20 years as a docker, but never suspected this 'Teutonic Taint'.

Another victim of these reprisals, was Max Schultz's family, who lived at 82 Coltman Street. Max Schultz was actually a British Spy before the First World War. He was born in Hull to Pomeranian, emigrant parents, on their way to the United States. For unknown reasons, they broke their voyage, stayed in Hull and opened a shoe shop. Max Schultz became a ship owner by trade, and little is known of how he came to work for the British Secret Service. The Admiralty was suspicious that the Germans were secretly accelerating their shipbuilding program, namely stockpiling guns, turrets, and armor, well in advance of actually building the battleships. (Building the guns, gun mountings, and armor was more time-consuming than building the ships themselves, and stockpiling could cut the three years required to build a ship, to two and a half or two years.) It was suspected that construction was being started in advance of the dates scheduled by the German Navy Law, in advance even of the authorisation of funds by the Reichstag. The consequence of such subterfuge could be dramatic: instead of a 16:13 battleship ratio in favor of Britain in 1912, Britain was facing the possibility of a ratio anywhere from 17:16 to 21:16 in favor of Germany. It was in this atmosphere that Britain formed the Secret Serive Bureau on 1st October 1909 and Schultz was recruited. During his travels in Germany in 1910-11, Schultz recruited four informants, the most important being an engineer named Hipsich, in Bremen's Weser shipyards. In the two years Hipsich operated, before being detected, he had the opportunity to inform the British about Germany's battleship plans and apparently handed over a large collection of drawings.

Max Schultz was arrested for running a spy ring in Germany in 1911, where he served seven years of hard labour. (At the same time, a genuine German spy with a similar name, Max Schulz, was arrested in Portsmouth for trying to procure naval information for Germany.) Unfortunately, Hull residents did not realize what Max was doing for Britain before the war and his wife Sarah Hilton & their 5 children suffered abuse and their house was stoned (as were many families with German sounding names). Sarah changed the family name to ner maiden name Hilton. During his time in prison, Max Schultz built a model of the ship 'Imperator', which can be seen in Hull's Maritime museum today. He hid a letter relating to his prison experience in one of it's funnels. After returning from Hamburg, were he remained after the war to instigate unrest in the German navy, Max had a yacht, the 'Lady Esmeralda', moored on the Thames, and a mistress. He died of alcholism in 1924, aged 49.  *

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22 Princes Avenue - (Next to Pave Pub) then and now.                 The scene of one of many riots during World War One

 

 

* Thank You to Roger Kemple for supplying this information on Max Schultz and Brian Gohl for information on the Gohl family.

Hull Street Memorials

No automatic alt text available.We tend to approach war memorials with pathos and a narrative about the futility of war, but the generation that built them were actually proud of them. People wanted to show the pride of sacrifice. They even experienced joy that their fathers, husbands and sons, had stepped up to the plate in the time of need. War memorials were defined in positive terms - as 'Defence against aggression', for 'Justice', 'Liberty' and Glory'. They were a sign of a colossal generational effort to "end all wars, for humanity" and celebrate the gift, that those who fell, gave to future generations. There were all sorts of ideas put forward for commemorating the war and the people who fought in it, which resulted in a wide variety of memorials. There were official tokens of remembrance in the form of memorial plaques, issued to relatives of the fallen and commemorative “Peace” medals. Charitable care for ex-Servicemen was begun under the auspices of the Flanders Poppy Fund. The red poppy is now internationally recognized as a symbol of Remembrance, with its roots in the tragedy of the First World War. Memorial rolls of honour were put up in factories, sports clubs, railway stations, schools, and universities. Church windows were designed and dedicated to military units or individuals. Memorial buildings were constructed to provide “living memorials”, for example, as community centres, places for rehabilitation or worship.

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After the First World War, communities were keen to erect memorials to remember their dead. Over 5,000 memorials were raised in towns across Britain, in the first two years after the War, and some 37,000 exist today in public spaces, in various forms. The demand for war memorials lasted many years and many were not completed until long after the war.

The first and earliest war memorials in Hull, were the 'Street Shrines' or 'Rolls of Honour', These were created in the early years of the war to commemorate all those locally serving in the armed forces. The idea of Street War memorials started in the East end of London, but it was soon adopted in towns, such as St Albans, and became particularly widespread in Hull.  In 1915, St Marks Church was the first to errect a large, wooden board, on the railings outside, showing all the men from St Marks Street serving in the war. The Memorials took many shapes, forms and styles. Some were in stone, wood, lists of name on parchments of paper, Poems, of a collection of framed photographs of men or leading figures of the time. Some included only those men directly involved from the street, others included relatives from other streets. Some 'Roll of Honours' covered large areas, such as Wilmington and Sculcoates, which included many streets. 

A great deal of work went into designing these 'Rolls of Honour'. Committees were set up and Ladies went round collecting names, information and money. The names of servicemen, were often written on paper scrolls, or scratched onto wooded boards, and displayed prominently on Street corners. The memorials were often so highly decorated, with flowers, flags and patriotic pictures, so much so that they became known as  'Street Shrines'. There was keen competition between Streets for the best memorials. Montrose Avenue, boasted the finest Street Memorial, Courtney Street the largest, and Northumberland Avenue drew the largest crowds. The opening ceremonies were grand affairs, with bands, choirs, hundreds of people attending and widely reported in the local newspapers. It was reported that the unveiling of the Wilmington Roll of Honour, on the 12th November 1916, attracted over 10,000 people (HDM 13/11/16). Some opening ceremonies caused incidents, such as the unveiling of the New George Street memorial, on the 8th October 1916. Here, Thomas Boast, the local Greengrocer, had failed to display a flag in his shop, and was attacked by a crowd for being unpatriotic. For example, Emily Atkin, from New George Street and Alice Brown, from Scott Street, were fined £5 for breaking his shop window and accusing his wife of being 'Austrian'. No automatic alt text available.

While Street memorials were widely popular, they relied on the goodwill of residents to maintain them. Inevitably these 'Rolls of Honour'. could not keep pace with conscription, or the movement of men between regiments and armed services as the war went on. There was also some opposition to the memorials, with people refusing to include their names or saying that the money should be spent on the troops. Some complained that names had been mis-spelt, left out or ignored. Others were forced to move after the death of their husbands and their connection with the street was forgotten. No automatic alt text available.The memorials were often too small to record the increasing numbers of casualties. For example, Bean Street, lost at least 93 men in the War; Waterloo Street 75; Barnsley Street 59; Walker Street 52, Spyvee Street, 51; and hundreds of men died from the Hessle Road, Beverley Road and Holderness Road areas.The declining enthusiasm for war, meant that many Street memorials were not updated after 1916. For example, the current Eton Street, marble memorial, bears little resemblance to its original, which included many more names of men killed in the war. As well as these ommissions, there were also spelling mistakes, wrong intials or nicknames used on street shrines which compromised their accuracy. Sometimes the same servicemen appeared on several memorials, as they moved address, or were included by relatives in different streets. Also, as most 'Street Shrines' were only designed as temporary structures, they were not long lasting. The Courtney Street memorial was not updated after 1916 and fell into dis-repair. It was discovered years latter in a shop attic and re-errected in 1924. Many Street memorials were destroyed during the Second World War blitz, which devastated Hull. Others were lost through slum clearance in the 1970's and post war reconstruction. For example, the Portland Street Shrine, was removed for safety in 1941, and placed in St Stephen's church , which was then destroyed in the Blitz, in the same year. Only Waller Street attempted to update their memorial after the war, but this has now disappeared. Just a few examples of Hull Street memorials survive today. Most notably, these are at, Sharp Street, Newland Avenue, Eton Street, on Hessle Road and Dansom Lane. Some other examples of street shrines are also preserved in the Hull Transport museum.Image may contain: 2 people

The following 'Street Shrine' details were reported in the Hull Daily Mail during 1916. They give some idea of the popularity of Street Memorials, and the large numbers of men who enlisted. They also indicate the impact of casualties on these Hull communities.

Alexandra Street, Warne Street and Sutton Street shared a memorial, which showed 250 names; 

Brighton Street - 129 men joined up;

Bellamy Street - 51 houses, 38 men serving, and 3 fallen by 16/10/1916;

Crystal Terrace, Courtney Street - 15 houses, 13 serving;

Conway Street , Rosamond Street, and Sefton Street memorials showed 167 men serving, seven of which had been killed by 12/9/1916;

Epworth Street - 26 houses, 31 men serving, 1 killed, 2 wounded. Private, A Teasdale awarded the DCM. (HDM 29/11/16)Eastbourne Street - 113 names, 13 killed by 8/9/1916;Chiltern Street - 103 men serving;

Emmeline Terrace, St Paul's Street - 19 houses & 32 men serving;

Flinton Street & St Andrew's Street Shrine - 300 names with 22 sailors and fishermen lost at sea.

Gillett Street, - its Roll of Honour showed 325 names, of which 24 were dead, by 30/8/1916;

Grange Street - reported 179 men, of which 5 had been killed and two had lost limbs, by 26/9/1916;

Havelock Street - 127 names and one killed - 8/9/1916; 

Lockwood Street, shows that the Tock family at No:21 have 11 family members serving, including 7 sons. There are also 4 Gorrods, 3 Keeches, 3 Lamberts, and 4 Woods serving. By 1916 it already shows 16 killed, 2 wounded and 2 Prisoners of War.

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Manchester Street - 170 men serving and 5 killed - 30/8/1916;No automatic alt text available.

Montrose Avenue, Gibson Street had 19 houses with 31 men serving, including five brothers. By 28/11/1916, three had been killed, one was missing and 11 others had been wounded.

Northumberland Avenue Shrine - 228 men served, of which 7 were killed, 2 drowned, 1 died, 1 died of wounds, 15 wounded, 6 Prisoners of War, and Private, J L Elston, EYR was awarded the DCM.

Osborne Street - 163 serving from 115 houses. Six men from one house, 13 killed, 13 wounded & 1 prisoner of war (HDM 30/10/16)

Portland Street and New Garden Street - 98 men serving and 7 killed, by 30/10/1916;

Porter Street and Michael Street - 116 men serving from 88 houses, of which 14 had been killed, 14 wounded, three of them wounded three times, and three others were Prisoners of War.

Providence Row - 181 men serving, and 12 reported killed by 19/9/16.Image may contain: one or more people

Rose Street - 50 houses, 66 men and one Nurse serving, 20/9/1916;

Spyvee Street Shrine showed 140 names of men serving;

Strickland Street - 130 names - 24 killed and 3 Prisoners of War; 

Walker Street - 300 men had enlisted by 26/9/1916.

Waterloo Street, Sarah Ann Terrace,  - 31 houses, 35 men serving, 3 killed and 2 wounded;

Wellsted Street Memorial showed 235 men serving by 26/9/1916; 

Wilmington Roll of Honour - listed 460 names of those serving (HDM 13/11/16)

Witty Street -70 men serving, of which 2 had been killed;

Worthing Street - 93 names & 5 killed by 19/9/1916;

Wyndham Street, Grosvenor Avenue, - 8 houses & 8 men serving.

Hull had many more Street Memorials during the First World War. While these have now largely disappeared you can search this website to find the casualties on each street in Hull. This website records over 9,000 men from Hull or with a Hull connection. Their addresses come from local newspapers, army records, Census details or local trade directories.

Many Hull firms, such as Reckitt's and the Wilson Shipping Line had workplace memorials. The Hull & Barnsley Railway Company, displayed a bronze plaque, with the names of 183 men killed in the war. Unlike Belgium, France and Italy, the majority of Britain's 750,000 war dead, are buried abroad and have no known graves. This distance, absence from home, and deep sense of loss, has remained a strong part of family histories ever since. It is the reason why war memorials continue to be important in Britain, and commemorating the First World War still remains heartfelt, even after a 100 years. Hull City Council also produce a book to commemorate the Peace after the First World War and these were given to all scholl children as a Souvenier.

Image may contain: one or more peopleHull Street Memorials                                                                                   

The first and earliest war memorials in Hull, were the 'Street Shrines' or 'Rolls of Honour'.While Street memorials were popular, they relied on the goodwill of residents to maintain them. Inevitably these 'Rolls of Honour'. could not keep pace with conscription, or the movement of men transferring between regiments and other armed services. There was also some opposition to the memorials, with people refusing to include their names, or saying that the money should be spent on the troops at the front. Some complained that names had been mis-spelt, or ignored or contained other errors. The memorials were often too small to record the increasing numbers of casualties. For example, Bean Street, with a population of over 3,000 people, saw hundreds of men enlist and over 90 men killed. The declining enthusiasm for war, meant that many Street memorials were not updated after 1916 and they became inaccurate. The Eton Street, marble memorial, bears little resemblance to its original, which included many more names of men killed in the war. Also, most 'Street Shrines' were only designed as temporary structures. Some were merely names written on paper and they were not long lasting. Many Street memorials were destroyed during the bombing of Hull in 1941. Others were lost through slum clearance in the 1970's, and post war reconstruction. Just a few examples of Hull Street memorials survive today. Most notably, these are located at Sharp Street, Newland Avenue, and Eton Street, on Hessle Road and Dansom Lane. Some other examples of street shrines, are also preserved in the Hull Transport museum. Street Memorials were never repeated during the Second World War.

Below is a 'Street Shrine' on Hessle Road, and examples of other Hull 'Rolls of Honour' at Newington Street, Courtney Street, St Marys, Sculcoates Lane, Sharp Street, Aldbro Street, West Dock Avenue, Pulman Street and Evans Square, Stoneferry, Wilmington, Grange Street, Victor Street and the Groves area of Hull.Image may contain: 9 people

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(The Crowle Street Memorial Plaque above)

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No automatic alt text available.Workplaces also created their own war memorials. Hull's world famous Reckitt's firm, saw 70 of its men join at the outbreak of war and by 1917, 820 men had enlisted. A total of 1,108 Reckitt employees, served from its world wide workforce, with 153 employees killed and 50% of the remainder wounded or disabled. In tribute to their service, Sir James Reckitt errected a memorial fountain in the grounds of its Hull Office. The picture to the right shows the Hull Post Office memorial at their sorting Office, in St Peter's Street. The Hull and Barnsley Railway Line commissioned a bronze plaque listing the 178 employees who died in the First World War. The Hull Post Office, lost at least 46 employees. Schools also produced their own war memorials. Hymers school memorial, contains the names of 116 former Hull pupils. Hull Grammar school memorial lost 88 ex pupils in the Great War. The Clifton Street School Memorial (below) recorded 66 pupils killed in the First World War. Hull's Municipal Technical College, listed 52 former students on their Park Street memorial. The names of 28 Hull teachers are recorded on a bronze tablet mounted in Hull's Guildhall .

The 'ww1hull.org.uk' site, recreates these memorials, to highlight Hull's forgotten history. After the War, remembrance became paramount, to ensure that the dead had not died in vain, and because so many men had no known grave. Like London, Hull built its own cenotaph to remember its war dead. It was erected at Paragon Square, Ferensway, to a design by T. Harold Hughes. Paid entirely through public donations, at a cost of £24,000, the Cenotaph was built by Quibell and Son (Hull), and unveiled on the 20th September 1924. The Hull Cenotaph is a simple, design, devoid of any representations of heroism and victory, or any religious symbolism. It provides a blank canvas for the viewer to project their own feelings of war. Hull's Cenotaph remains a successful design. Even today, it still evokes the eternal, human feelings, of death and loss. It bears the following inscription:-

ERECTED TO THE MEMORY OF THE MEN OF KINGSTON-UPON-HULL WHO LAID DOWN THEIR LIVES FOR THEIR COUNTRY IN THE GREAT WAR 1914-1918 AND IN THE WORLD WAR 1939-1945 THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE. In front, is the South African War Memorial (1899-1902) unveiled on 5th November 1904.

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As a practical memorial to those who survived, Hull established the City of Hull Great War Trust, in 1918. It was funded through voluntary donations and used to help those wounded and disabled and the dependents of those lost in the war. The Great War Trust was a unique idea pioneered in Hull and helped men and women from all forces, including the fishing fleet and mercantile marine. The Trust distributed nearly £300,000 and assisted over 4,000 people before it was closed in 1983.

On the 16th October 1927, the Kingston Upon Hull War Memorial was unveiled at the French village of Oppy. This remembered the men of Kingston-upon-Hull and all local units who gave their lives in the Great War: Many of the casualties of 31st Division who died at Oppy were from the Hull area. The ground of which the memorial stands was donated by the Vicomte and Vicomtesse du Bouexic de la Driennays in memory of their 22 year old son Pierre, an NCO of the French 504th Tank Regiment who was killed in action at Guyencourt on 8 August 1918. It too, is located on the village square of Oppy.

(Clifton Street School 1914-18 Memorial, Hull)ww1_Oppywood_memorial.jpg

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(Pictures above include:the Bronze plaque of the Hull Technical college, Park Street: Hull Boys Club Memorial formerly at Roper Street; the marble Post Office memorial, St Peter's Square, Hull; Clifton Street School Roll of Honour 1914-18, Hull's Cenotaph memorial, Paragon Square, and the Hull Kingston Memorial, Oppy Wood, France.) For other memorials see the following link

 http://www.hull-peoples-memorial.co.uk/Database/Memorials/Memorials.php

 Thank You to "Hull, the Good Old Days" Facebook, for the above photos.