Kingston upon Hull War Memorial 1914 - 1918

The story of Hull in World War One

Our Loss

A great many people from Hull lost their lives in World War 1. 

There are over a hundred families on the Hull Memorial that lost two or more of their family. Each was an individual tragedy.

What follows here are snippets about some of those people.

Over, 7,500 Hull men died in the First World War. Over 1,200 of these were sailors working with the fishing fleet, or serving with the Merchantile Marine, the Royal Navy and the Royal Navy Reserve. They carried out vital war work, bringing in supplies, transporting troops and minesweeping the seas

There were nearly another 1,500 men who were born in Hull, but who lived elsewhere. They died fighting for Australia, Canada, New Zealand and America. There are many others, who enlisted in Hull or who were associated with the City, but are not usually remembered on Hull war memorials. As Hull had four large hospitals and was the port of entry for repatriated prisoner of wars, servicemen from all over the world are buried in Hull. The Kingston Upon Hull Memorial aims to remember all those with a Hull connection who died in the First World War.

There are over a hundred families on the Hull Memorial that lost two or more of their family. Sometimes fathers, sons and brothers were lost on the same day. Some families lost three sons, other Hull families lost four sons, including all their children in the First World War. At least one in six Hull families lost a direct relative. Many others would lose close friends, work colleagues or others known to them. Each death was irreplaceable and an individual tragedy for someone.

Unfortunately, not all deaths were recorded in official casualty figures, particularly if soldiers died of sickness, accidents or were discharged home with wounds, of illness. By 1924 the Ministry of Pensions reported that there were 20,000 war wounded living in Hull. Although they survived the war, they are rarely recorded on war memorials. What follows here are snippets of some of those people who died, whose deaths were reported in the local newspapers. 

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OPPY WOOD, 3rd May 1917 - The Hull Pals Attack

mericourt-vendin_lineThe Capture of Oppy Wood was an engagement, North East of Arras, between May and June 1917. The Germans were in possession of a fortified wood to the west of the village of Oppy, which overlooked British positions. The wood was 1-acre (0.40 ha) in area and contained many German observation posts, machine-guns and trench-mortars. The aim of the attack was to remove this defensive obstacle and divert German resources away from the main offensive, planned at Messines in early June 1917. In military terms, Oppy Wood was a diversionary attack, by the 92nd Brigade, of the 31st Division,during the Third Battle of the Scarpe (3–4 May). It was an attack on a half mile front, in unfavourable conditions, and against impenetrable German defences. It is also known as the Battle of Gavrelle. However, for the people of HullOppy Wood, would be forever remembered as the place where the Hull Pals made their name. In fierce fighting around the village, Hull lost more men on the 3rd May 1917, than any other. The attack failed and the final casualties totalled 326. 

The main British attacking forces in this battle were the 10th, 11th and 12th Battalions of the East Yorkshire Regiment, known as the ‘Hull Pals’. They advanced up a slope, in the dark, in four waves, over difficult terrain, illuminated by German rockets and Very Lights. They faced Oppy Wood, which was elaborately fortified, and defended by experienced German troops. They struggled forward over three belts of barb wire entanglements. Unable to keep pace with their barrage, and were exposed to murderous German machine gun fire. Despite this, the Hull Pals continued to advance. One company fought their way into Oppy village itself, while the rest were held up. After attacking three times, they were forced to withdraw under constant fire. During the action, 2nd-Lieut. John Harrison, of the 11th Battalion, silenced an enemy machine-gun post single handedly and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.No automatic alt text available.IWM-Oppy-Q-37358

Preparations for the attack on Oppy began on the 1st May 1917. Officers and NCO’s of the 10th and 13th EYR, went forward to check the assembly positions and returned next morning to issue equipment for the advance. At 11pm on the 2nd May, the 11th and 12th EYR Battalions started to move to their assembly positions. The 10th EYR moved at 11.30pm. Start time for the attack was to be 3.45am on the 3rd May, with the 10th EYR positioned on the right flank, the 11th EYR in the centre and the 12th EYR on the left flank, all opposite Oppy Wood. A preliminary bombardment by nine Field Artillery Brigades and the use of extra machine guns was expected to cut the barb wire, neutralise all German resistance and leave the trenches intact for the Pals to occupy.  In reality, this failed to happen for a number of reasons.

(Oppy Wood on a Trench Map & Oppy Village under fire.)

 1. On the 28th and 29th April, the Battle of Arleux had been fought on the same battleground and the 13th EYR had suffered a number of casualties. The assembly positions which had been heavily shelled, offered little cover and debris from that battle littered the ground, hindering coordinated movement. The 10th EYR Battalion history records that the assembly trenches were “barely four feet deep, with no communications to the rear, nor any means of contact to left or right."

 2. Oppy Wood was full of fallen trees and tangled branches which gave the enemy great cover. A long slope of 1,000m to the west, left the British field artillery at extreme range. This reduced its accuracy and largely failed to cut the enemy wire.

 3. Oppy wood was a strongly defended position, guarded by experienced German soldiers. In front of Oppy Wood, lay a well organised trench system, protected by barb wire and good communications, which covered the Oppy wood and village from flanking attacks. The wood itself contained a large number of machine gun posts and all along the German lines, machine gun posts and mortars were well placed to repel any attack. The area was held by the 1st and 2nd German Guards, which the East Yorkshire Regimental history describes as, ‘some of the bravest of the enemy troops’. The Germans had strengthened the wood by developing defensive tactics learnt from the earlier Somme battles. The British had expected to encounter demoralised troops and thought that the creeping barrage would neutralise all resistance. However, some of the German wire at the south-western corner of the wood was uncut and rather than being shaken, the Germans were actually massing for a counter attack.

 4It was originally intended to make a night assault, to evade German machine-gun fire. However, the Third and First armies needed to attack in daylight and Douglas Haig enforced a compromise zero hour of 3:45 a.m. No preparations had been made for an advance at night, such as, putting out boards, luminous paint on the German wire, taking compass-bearings or organising intermediate objectives. Sunrise was not until 5:22 a.m. and it would not be possible to see objects in the dark, at 50 yards (46 m) until 4:05 a.m.

5. On the night of the attack, there was a full moon which did not set until sixteen minutes before the attack beagn. On many parts of the front, British troops assembling, were illuminated by the moon, exposing them to enemy fire. The 11th EYR war diary records “to get to the assembly positions, Companies had to go over the top of a rise within 1000 yards, with a moon low in the sky behind them.”

6. The German defenders saw the British infantry forming up in the moonlight, in an assembly trench just 250 yards (230 m) in front of them. At midnight, the German’s sent out a patrol and at 12:30 a.m., bombarded the British lines for twenty minutes. They then began a second bombardment from 1:30 a.m. until zero hour. The German bombardment then increased, when the British preliminary bombardment began and increased again when the attack started. The 11th EYR were laying out in the open, under a heavy bombardment, for over two hours. There were few British casualties, but the shelling caused considerable confusion, with A and D companies of the 11th EYR companies unable to form into their attacking positions. 

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The 13th East Yorkshire Diary records “Our barrage started at 3.45am advancing at a rate of 100 yards, every four minutes and the Battalion followed 50 yards behind the barrage. It was dark, from the smoke and dust caused by our barrage, and the hostile barrage, also the fact that we were advancing on a dark wood made it impossible to see when our barrage lifted off the German trench. Consequently the Hun had time to get his machine guns up. Machine guns were firing from within the wood from trees, as well as from the front trench, nevertheless the men went forward, attacked and were repulsed. Officers and NCO’s, reformed their men in No Man’s Land, under terrific fire and attacked again, and again were repulsed. Some even attacked a third time, some isolated parties got through the wood to OppyVillage and were reported there by aeroplanes at 6am. These men must have been cut off and surrounded later. The Battalion was so scattered and the casualties had been so heavy that it was decided to consolidate the only assembly trench we had when the battle started.” At 10pm the battalion was finally relieved by the 11th East Lancs and retired back to camp for a short rest. The 12th EYR, were also spotted moving up to their assembly trench and were heavily bombarded. Their War Diary writes: “The assembling took place in brilliant moonlight over quite unknown country and with four guides (from the 13th EYR). The enemy evidently saw the troops assembling and put up an intensive barrage followed by another one later. This considerably distinguished things and at zero hour, the blackest part of the night, the troops moved forward to the attack.” The first wave of the 12th EYR entered the German front line trench, which was strongly held, the second wave followed, but was forced to withdraw and eventually the first wave was beaten back out of the enemy line. Under heavy shell fire the 12th EYR to withdraw to their original assembly trench, where they remained all day, under heavy shelling and machine gun fire. They were later relieved during the night, on the 3rd/4th May, by the East Lancashire Regiment.

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The 10th EYR also suffered a "tremendous" barrage on their assembly-positions, just before zero hour, which caused much disorganisation. The darkness in this area was increased by Oppy Wood itself and meant that the infantry could not see their barrage lift. The 10th EYR, on the right found areas of uncut wire and lost many casualties when they bunched up at the gaps, before reaching the wood. All four company commanders were wounded and the smoke and dust made it impossible to see what was going on at the flanks, and indeed obscured the objectives. The struggle to secure the German first line meant that the allied barrage had moved far ahead of the small parties that penetrated the German front trenches. A considerable number of men from the 10th EYR got into and beyond the first German line, some even penetrated OppyVillage itself. One gallant soldier even brought back eight German prisoners single handed. However it was impossible to get forward to consolidate the line. Survivors from the 10th EYR eventually withdrew to the original assembly trench where they started. Many troops were then cut off and captured, or forced back with many casualties. Many of the troops were stranded in 'No Man's land' and had to wait all day under fire from snipers, machine-guns and artillery until nightfall, before completing the retirement. The 10th EYR war diary found it difficult to give an accurate account of the battle. “A considerable number of men undoubtedly crossed the German line and got some way forward and possibly in places reached the first objective.” It was discovered after the war that the majority of the 10th Hull Commercials, who had been taken prisoner during the attack, had actually advanced as far as Oppy village itself.

Hull Casualties

The official figures from Battalion Diary records, report that the 'Hull Commercials' (10th EYR battalion) went into the attack with 16 Officers and 484 Other Ranks. Their losses were: 13 Officers and 223 Other Ranks. At least 69 men were killed on the 3rd May with an unknown number dying of wounds later. The 11th EYR suffered at least 56 fatalities on the 3rd May.Image may contain: text

The 12th EYR reported two Officers and seven other ranks killed, 150 other ranks missing and one Officer and 127 other ranks wounded, plus one Officer dying of wounds. The 'Soldiers died in the Great War' records, list 81 other ranks killed in action on the 3rd May with the 12th EYR. The losses suffered by the 12th EYR, were so great, that they resulted in it being reformed into only two companies. The remnants of A & C companies were attached to the 10th EYR and the remains of Companies B and D were sent to the 11th EYR. Although the attack on Oppy Wood was repulsed with many British casualties, the operations did succeed in diverting German attention from the French front.

CWGC records show 223 men from the 10th, 11th, 12th & 13th East Yorkshire Regiment, died at Oppy Wood, on the 3rd May 1917. Another 53 men from the 8th EYR, died on the same day, attacking the village of Monchy, ten miles away from Oppy.

At least 123 of these 276 men, or 44.5% have a known Hull connection. Another 29 Hull men, also died on the 3rd May 1917, fighting for other regiments. This meant  a total of153 Hull men were killed on the 3rd May 1917. They included 17 men from the 8th EYR, 44 from the 10th EYR, 30 from the 11th EYR, 29 from the 12th EYR and 3 from the 13th EYR, all killed on the 3rd May 1917.

There would be many others who later died of wounds received on this day.

The CWGC, records that 580 men of the East Yorkshire regiment died during May and June 1917, and 7,815 men from the East Yorkshire regiment killed in the war. Many of these men would have come from Hull and the East Riding, as seen by cross checking CWGC records, Soldiers Died records which show enlistment areas and the addresses of the dead compiled on this website.

Cadorna Trench Raid

The Hull Pals later carried out a successful raid on Cadorna Trench on the 23rd and 24th June 1917. The 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th EYR’s each supplied two Officers and 50 other ranks for the raid which was led by Lt, Col., Ferrand from the 11th EYR. The raid was on a 40 yard front, with 50 yards between each battalion that attacked with rifle and bombing sections. Zero Hour was 10.20pm with a heavy bombardment of the German trench, during which the raiders left their position in two lines. Immediately as the barrage lifted, the raiders rushed the German first and second lines. The raid captured 200 prisoners and killed some 280 enemy, destroying dugouts and machine guns on the way. The raid lost 24 men, including Captain Saville, Lieutenant Wright and 2/Lieutenants Cliff and Oliver killed. Another 16 men were killed in the raid with four dying of wounds later. Another 28 men returned from the raid wounded. Sergeant Marritt won the DCM, but was killed on the raid. Oppy Wood was eventually captured on the 28th June 1917, with the East Yorkshires offering assistance. The 10th EYR formed the reserve Brigade, the 11th EYR held the front line with two companies and the 13th EYR was used for carrying parties.

Total Casualties

Image result for oppy wood picsOn 3 May, the 31st Division lost 1,900 casualties in the attack on Oppy Wood. The 2nd Division composite brigade had 517 losses, which left the division "bled white" with a "trench strength" of only 3,778 men. The Hull Commercials(10th battalion) went into the attack with 16 Officers and 484 Other Ranks. Their losses were: 13 Officers and 223 Other Ranks. The 11th and 12th Battalions, which also numbered men from Hull in their ranks, had similar losses. On 8 May, the 5th Bavarian Division lost 1,585 casualties in the counter-attack at Fresnoy. In the attack of 28 June the 31st Division lost 100 men and the 5th Division casualties were 352 men. Oppy wood was eventually captured on the 28th June 1917. The 10th EYR were held in reserve, the 11th EYR occupied the front line trenches and the 13th EYR were used as carrying parties.  

Commemoration

* The units which attacked Oppy Wood were awarded the battle honour Oppy. A wood on the outskirts of North Hull, is named Oppy, as a War memorial to the Hull Pals involved in the battle on the 3rd and 4th May, 1917.

* On the 16th October 1932, the people of Hull and the Commune of Oppy, unveiled a permanent memorial at the scene of the battle. The ground of which the memorial stands was donated by the Vicomte and Vicomtesse du Bouexic de la Driennays in memory of their 22 year old son Pierre, an NCO of the French 504th Tank Regiment, who was killed in action at Guyencourt on 8 August 1918. 

* Oppy Wood, was also immortalised in paint, by war artist John Nash. It is held at the Imperial War Museum (reference ART 2243) and is entitled "Oppy Wood, Evening, 1917". It is one of a series of paintings commissioned by the British War Memorial Committee set up by the Ministry of Information early in 1918 and is 2 metres high and wide. The lower half of the composition has a view inside a trench with duckboard paths leading to a dug-out. Two British infantrymen stand to the left of the dug-out entrance, one of them on the firestep looking over the parapet into No Man's Land. There is a wood of shattered trees littered with corrugated iron and planks at ground level to the right of the composition. The sky stretches above in varying shades of blue with a spectacular cloud formation framing a clear space towards the top of the composition.


Image result for oppy wood picsThe City of Hull Memorial at Oppy, France 

The magnificent Oppy memorial to the men of Kingston-upon-Hull and all local units, who gave their lives in the Great War: Many of the casualties of 31st Division, who died at Oppy, were from the Hull area. 

 

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THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN - The 6th East Yorkshire Regiment -Tekke Teppe- 9th August 1915. 

The Gallipoli Peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea between the Hellesport (now known as the Dardanelles) and the bay of Melas, which today is known as Saros Bay. At the time of the First World War, this narrow sea strait was a direct route to the Russian Empire, but was controlled by the Turkish Ottoman Empire, allied to Germany. In an attempt to break the deadlock on the Western Front, the Allies launched an ambitious attack on Gallipoli Peninsular on the 25th April 1915. They hoped that capturing the Dardanelles Straits would help supply Russia, defeat Turkey and encourage Greece and Bulgaria to join the allies in the war. THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN 1915-1916

The allies invaded the Gallipoli Peninsular at several beaches. They were met by stiff Turkish resistance, which confined them to narrow beachheads. The Campaign fighting was fierce, attritional and largely static. The first two weeks alone at Gallipoli, saw a higher rate of allied casualties than the Battle of the Somme, when measured as a percentage of those committed. Forced to dig in around the shorelines, the Allies spent the next eight months trying to capture the high ground and break free from the Peninsular. Eventually, the Allies were forced to withdraw from Gallipoli on the 9th January 1916. The eight month Gallipoli Campaign was a famous Turkish victory, costly to both sides. 

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN 1915-1916The Allied campaign was plagued by ill-defined goals, poor planning, insufficient artillery, inexperienced troops, inaccurate maps and intelligence, overconfidence, inadequate equipment and logistics, and tactical deficiencies at all levels. Geography also proved a significant factor with the Turks holding the higher ground. Over 131,000 men were killed during the 8 month Gallipoli Campaign. The Allies lost some 250,000 men, including 140,000 men through disease. Turkish casualties were estimated to be at least 280,000, with 86,000 killled. 

Gallipoli is best remembered for forging the National identity of Australia and New Zealand who suffered severely there, and for the remarkable evacuation of the Peninsular, which was achieved with the loss of only one life.

Links The Gallipoli Campaign http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign

8 things about Gallipoli          http://www.history.com/news/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-gallipoli-campaign?cmpid=Social_FBPAGE_HISTORY_20150425_172975093&linkId=13760087

The Gallipoli campaign has been keenly debated over the last century. Some believe it was a poorly planned exercise that failed in Whitehall, long before any serviceman set foot on the peninsular. Others argue that the campaign could have been successful, but may have made little difference to the main struggle on the Western Front. 

 

We can only speculate. However, history has largely overlooked how close ‘D’ company and HQ Battalion, of the 6th East Yorkshire Regiment, came to winning the campaign on the 8th and 9th Aug 1915. They failed (despite claims otherwise). The following is an interesting and little known episode in the Gallipoli story.

8th - 9th August 1915 – The 6th East Yorkshire Assault on Tekke Tepe Hill

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Men of the 6th East Yorkshire Pioneers,in 1915, who served at Gallipoli.

Tekke Tepe, is a hill about 800ft in height, in the centre of a series of ridges disposed, roughly in the shape of a horseshoe and enclosing Suvla Bay. General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, maintained that capturing this hill was crucial to succeed at Gallipoli. The 6th East Yorkshire Battalion landed at Gallipoli in the early hours of the 7th August 1915, with 22 Officers and 750 other ranks. (Three Officers and 153 men had been left in reserve at Imbros). 

AUSTRALIAN FORCES IN GALLIPOLI, 1915

Their attack on Tekke Tepe, is vividly recorded in the 6th (Pioneer) Battalion East Yorkshire War Diary, which is with the 11th Divisional Diaries. (This diary is easy to miss as it is not part of the line Battalion War Diary bundles. It is included in the Division papers, as the Pioneers were technically Divisional troops, although it seems they were attached to the 32nd Brigade for this operation). Capt. V Kidd, Adjutant of the 8th Battalion Duke of Wellington's Regt (West Ridings), also recorded the event in his personal account, which is an appendix to the 8th Battalion War Diary notes. Also the 6th Battalion York & Lancs. Regiment War Diary, records the Turks' attack over Tekke Tepe.

8th Aug 1915. Orders were received to join the 32nd Brigade with the WEST YORKS on our left, to attack and hold a position running from CHOCOLATE HILL to SULAJIK 105 C 6. The records of these orders have been lost. The Battalion advanced B [Coy] on the left under Major, BRAY, D [Coy] on the right under Capt GRANT, C [Coy] in second line and A [Coy] in reserve. Lt Col, MOORE advanced 

with the 1st line. At first no opposition was met with, but occupying the ridge which joins up with CHOCOLATE HILL and was about W by S from ANAFARTA SAGIR heavy firing was encountered. (Margin: Ref to ANAFARTA SAGIR sheet 1:20,000 Gallipoli Map 105 C 6) Capt ROGERS was killed and shortly afterwards Major, ESTRIDGE was wounded in the arm. THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916The Turks employed numerous snipers and shot particularly at our men as they went for water at a well. Parties were sent out, but were unable to find them. The position was entrenched on the reverse slope during the day and further forward during the night. Two officer's patrols were sent out during the evening: At about11:30 pm orders were received for the Battalion to retire to the points held by the WEST RIDING Regt and to occupy and improve a Turkish trench there. 11:30 pm. The orders have been lost. The men were tired and exhausted and short of water moving often in the dark led to equipment being mislaid.

9th Aug 1915. We found the West Riding Regiment in a vacant Turkish Trench at about 1:30 am. After some confusion getting the men into the trench in the dark, orders (lost) were received at 3:30 a.m. (late in reaching us) to deliver an attack (orders lost) on TEKKE TEPE (Sheet 119 O2) the West Riding Regt was to attack KAVALA TEPE (Sheet 119 C7) on our left. The men were at this stage in a state of extreme exhaustion and hunger. The Battalion moved northwards out of the trench in the following order D, C, B, A after passing SULAJIK we took a NE route crossing the dry beds of the streams. 

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916

Verbal orders had been given by Lt Col Moore that in the attack D and B Companies should form the first line (D on the left, B on the right) A Coy (Capt WILLATS) the second line and C Coy (now under Capt PRINGLE) the reserve. LtCol, MOORE was with D Coy. The other three companies due to the extreme exhaustion of the men and absence of explicit orders failed to keep in touch with D Coy who proceeded to advance up the lower slopes of the hill without waiting for B Coy to come into position on their right or for the other two companies to get into place. D Coy with LtColMOORE and 2 Lt STILL (Acting Adjutant) and HQ party seemed to have encountered no opposition at first. It was only when they were up the first shoulder (Sheet 119 L4) that the strength of the enemy was disclosed. Fire was poured in from concealed Turkish trenches and our men were unable to hold their ground. There was considerable confusion due to the rapid advance of D Coy and the fact that the other Companies had lost touch. D Coy suffered heavily. Capt GRANT had been wounded in the hand early in the engagement – Lt Col MOORE, 2 Lt STILL, Capt ELLIOTT, Lt RAWSTORNE, 2 Lt WILSON were all missing when what remained of the Coy fell back. A general retirement took place during which there was much mixing of units due to the Battalion failing to keep its formation. After two other stands had been made in conjunction with the West Riding Regt a line was eventually taken up along a line running N from (Sheet 118 V6). Reinforcements came up here and about 13:00 the Battalion was relieved and ordered to concentrate at the cut on A Beach (Sheet 104 B1). All orders and dispatches relating to these are lost as the orderly who carried them is missing……[A long list of Officer casualties follows] Other Ranks: Killed 20, Wounded 104, Wounded and Missing 28, Missing 183.This night the battalion bivouacked on 'A' Beach near the cut." The withdrawal of the East Yorkshires of the night of 8th August was difficult. There was no moon and it was pitch dark. It was almost impossible to find equipment and assemble the battalion quickly to move off to Sulajik. All the time, the Turks continued their fire on theEast Yorkshire, while they moved back and reached the position in the early hours. The East Yorkshire soldiers on arrival at 1.30am, dropped with exhaustion. Between 3 and 3.30am, all Company Commanders were suddenly ordered to report to the Colonel. They were told that the 6th East Yorkshire Regiment had received orders to seize the very high hill above Anafarta (Tekke Tepe). 

BYRNE S C (COL) COLLECTION

The West Ridings would attack another hill on the left (Kavak Tepe). As the orders had arrived late, the battalion had to move off immediately. The men in a state of exhaustion, thirsty and hungry had to be pulled out of their trenches. Colonel HGA Moore started off with HQ and D companies. When the three remaining companies assembled they found Colonel Moore, their Commanding Officer had gone ahead. In crossing the open space between the trenches at Sulajik and the foot of the hill, little or no opposition was encountered. Two officers of the 67th Field Company Royal Engineers, Major F.W. Brunner and Lt. V.Z. Ferranti accompanied Lt Col. Moore.  Lt Ferranti was ordered to wait and follow up with the next company of East Yorkshires that came along. The group split into three parties Col Moore., Maj. Brunner and 2 Lt Still, with one party, Capt. Steel with another and Capt. 

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916Elliott with the third. As they reached the lower slopes of the hill north of Baka Baba, the rifle fire from the snipers became more insistent. They carried on up Tekke Tepe, the casualties becoming more serious. Major Brunner was killed and many others shot down. The survivors, Col. Moore and 2nd Lt. Still leading, reached the summit along with Capt., Elliot, Lt., Rawstone and between 12 and 30 men. They were cut off by the advancing Turks and the survivors, five in number, including Mr. Still, were captured.

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916This little party of East Yorkshire men and Engineers achieved the brilliant feat of reaching a position, farther east on the heights above Suvla Bay than any other troops in the entire campaign. Of the 750 men in the 6th (Pioneer) East Yorkshire Battalion, 347, or roughly 46% had become casualties in just 3 days. Officer casualties were 15, or 75% of those who landed on 7th August. They included two Officers killed in action; five wounded; six 'Missing in Action' and 2 'Wounded and Missing'. Most of those 'Missing in Action' at Gallipoli were actually killed. Searching this website shows that 47 men, killed with the 6th Yorkshires came from Hull, and ten others died on the 9th August 1915 at Suvla Bay, fighting for New Zealand, the West Ridings and other regiments. After the War, all captured British Officers were required to make a written statement to the War Office, about the events surrounding their capture. Capt R D Elliott, 6th Battalion East Yorkshire Regiment captured at Tekke Tepe recounted how they reached the top of hill. Another account by Lieutenant, John Still wrote. “About thirty of us reached the top of hill, perhaps a few more. And when there were about twenty left we turned and went down again. We had reached the highest point and furthest point that British forces from SuvlaBay were destined to reach. But we naturally knew nothing of that.

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916

General Sir Ian Hamilton, Commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, wrote in his War Diary, that Tekke Tepe was the key hill, overlooking Suvla Bay. He believed British troops had actually reached the summit of the hill on August 9, and that, had they been given proper support, victory was in sight. However, until 1923 he had no definite evidence to confirm his belief. In October 1923, he received a letter printed in The Times, (on 30th October 1923), from Mr. John Still, a tea planter in Ceylon, who had been adjutant of the 6thBattalion East Yorkshire Regiment, a unit of the 32 Brigade, during the Suvla operations. He gave details of his own experiences on Tekke Tepe as follows:-.

“I was the only officer on that hill who had spent years in jungle and on hills and was in consequence able to appreciate things accurately. We had been ordered to take up that position on the map and we took it up. I fixed our exact position by prismatic compass. We fought all day there and had a good few casualties including two officers (or three), and then we were taken off again at night "because the regiments to right and left of you have not been able to get up". That was the night of August 8. On our right were a Sergeant and two men only of another regiment, lost and re-found by us. I forget their unit, but I can still see the identifying mark on their backs in my mind's eye: it was a sort of castle in yellow. 

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916Beyond them there was a gap right away to Chocolate Hill. On our left was not as you state another regiment, but only a weak half company of the West Yorkshires with two officers of whom one was killed, and the other – Davenport– severely wounded. And this left us in the air. Your orders given to General Stopford at 6pm never reached us on Scimitar Hill. Why? They knew where we were, for I was in touch by day with Brigade H.Q. signalers on Hill 10 or close to it. By night I lost contact for both my lamps failed me. As you justly say, anyone with half an eye could see Tekke Tepe was the key to the whole position. Even I, a middle-aged amateur who had done a bit of big game shooting and knocking about saw it at once. We reconnoitered it, sent an officer and my signaler corporal to climb it, and got through to Brigade H.Q. the message giving our results. THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916I sent it myself. The hill was then empty. Next morning you saw or heard that troops had actually reached the top of Tekke Tepe. Yes they had. A worn and weak company, D Company, of my regiment, together with my Colonel (Moore). Major Brunner, of the Royal Engineers., and myself started up that hill. About thirty got to the top: of them five got down again to the bottom, and of those three lived to the end of the war. I was one of them. You wonder why we did not 'dig in' (pages 78 and 79 of your Volume II) as we had lots of time. There, Sir is where that war was lost. You sent a Brigade at that empty hill on the afternoon of the 8th. Actually, owing to staff work being so bad, only a battalion received orders to attack, and they did not receive those orders until dawn on the 9th. I received them myself as adjutant. The order ran to this effect: "The C.-in-C. considers this operation essential to the success of the whole campaign". THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916The order was sent out on the late afternoon of the 8th, when we were on Scimitar Hill. It reached us at dawn on the 9th in a Turkish trench at Sulejik. In the meanwhile, for those hours more precious to the world than we even yet can judge, the Brigade Major was lost! Good God why didn't they send a man who knew the country? He was lost, lost, lost and it drives one almost mad to think of it. Excuse Me. Next morning (from the order) at dawn on the 9th you saw some of our fellows climbing cattle tracks. You don't place them exactly where I think you really saw them, but as I know, there were none just precisely where you say you saw them, I am pretty certain it was us you saw from the ship, only we were half a mile north of where you describe.Then we climbed Tekke Tepe.Simultaneously the Turks attacked through the gap from Anafarta. THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916Their attack cut in behind D Company and held back the rest of the battalion who fought in the trench, with the Duke of Wellington's on their left. We went on, and, as I said, not one of us got back again. A few were taken prisoner. I was slightly wounded, and stayed three years and three months as a prisoner. Later that morning we who survived were again taken up Tekke Tepe by its northern ravine on the west side. Turkish troops were simply pouring down it and the other ravines. On the top of Tekke Tepe were four field guns camouflaged with boughs of scrub oak, and a Brigade H.Q. was just behind the ridge. I had a few minutes conversation there with the Turkish Brigadier in French. But I am coming home on leave in March or April next. THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916May I have the honour of meeting you and going over it on the map?I think much might be cleared up that was still obscure when you wrote your book. There are one or two things one prefers not to write.Please let me know your wishes in this matter. I loved your book and I want to do any small thing possible to complete your picture. Yours truly (Signed) JOHN STILL, Victoria Commemoration Buildings, Nos: 40 and 41 Ward StreetKandyCeylon Sept 19. 

THE GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGN, APRIL 1915-JANUARY 1916Second Lieutenant, James Theodore Underhill, was a 22 year old, adjutant serving with the 6th East Yorkshire Battalion at Galipolli and was the Signaler at Tekke Tepe. His letter to the Times, published 14thFebruary 1925, recounts the following”....Being a qualified land surveyor, and experienced in the use and construction of maps and the knowledge of the country, I was well able to keep notes of our positions and was the officer mentioned in your letter who took the patrol up Tekke Tepe. In fact I still have your signal corporal’s field glasses which I took from him while on the hill, my own being smashed by a rifle bullet whilst using them on this patrol. My report disagrees with your letter in a few minor details – for instance while on Scimitar Hill, the 9th West Yorkshires were on our left, as I was actually speaking with their officers on their own right flank, but they were withdrawn before us, God knows why. Again, while you say Tekke Tepe was not occupied, it was held very lightly by patrols. We ran into two of them before reaching the top; out of one we bagged two Turks, the other escaped us. There were also three short lengths of partially dug trenches unoccupied while we were there, but showing signs of most recent occupation. Further, you say that the Turks came in behind D Company and the rest of the battalion fought in the trench. This is not quite right. We had advance fully 1500 yards (and I was with the rear company “B”) before we encountered the Turks. When we did, it was a ‘free for all’ bayonet affair, with the Turks outnumbering us about three to one. I saw nothing of the West Yorkshires as you mention, but the West Ridings who were to have supported the Brigade!!! attack were present. However, my report and your letter agree in the great fundamental point, this, that Tekke Tepe should have been taken on the evening of August 8. That this could and would have been done had there not been a lamentable failure of the Staff, I think goes unquestioned by those of us who had an accurate knowledge of the conditions; it was the loss of the Gallipoli campaign. I am even of the opinion that, that had the Staff work not been so rotten, and that had the attack in the early morning of August 9 been by three battalions instead of us alone, it might have been successful. If you remember, the attack was to have been a brigade affair, three battalions in attack with one in support. The supports (the West Ridings) were there, but where the other two battalions were, God alone knows. I think all of Kitchener’sArmy who took part in this landing and the following few days felt it intensely that they were blamed by the Staff for the failure on the grounds of being green troops. Compared with later experiencesin France, the 11thand 10thDivision fought as well as any troops ever did, be they Regulars or otherwise, and I am sure that those of us who had the honour to belong to either the 11thor 10thDivisions feel grateful to you for coming out plainly and placing the blame where it so justly belongs." *

Some argue that the 6th East Yorkshire attack on Tekke Tepe (actually in effect only D Coy and Battalion HQ) never reached the summit on the 9th August. Also the Officers were mistaken when they said that they reached the summit or had made it up after the war to compensate for being taken Prisoner. Also as most of the East Yorkshires were killed or captured, all the official reports were compiled after the events, by persons who had not been present. The War diaries show very clearly that patrols sent by the 6th East Yorkshires on the 8th August (the day before) met with little opposition, but a later advance on the 9th August to exploit this opportunity by the 6th East Yorkshires, supported by the 8th Battalion Duke of Wellington's Regiment (West Riding) and 67 Coy Royal Engineers was too late. It was repulsed by Turkish reinforcements, with heavy loss to D Coy of the 6th  East Yorkshires, who advanced without waiting for the remainder of the Battalion. However, the primary sources of Lieutenants John Still and James Underhill, who both were there at the time, claim that they did occupy Tekke Tepe. John Still was a 35 year old, tea planter, use to the hills of Ceylon and Underhill was a newly qualified land surveyor, aged 22. Both would have known if they had reached the top of Tekke Tepe. There was no collusion between these two men to make up their story. Lt., Stlll was captured and spent the rest of the war in Turkey. He believed he had been the only surviving Officer in the attack. Underhill although wounded in the chest, survived the war and then emigrated to Vancouver. If they did occupy Tekke Teppe, it would have been the furthest allied advance on the Peninsula, and if they had held this stategic position, the Gallipoli Campaign would have succeeded. After 100 years we can only speculate. It is perhaps best to concentrate on the bravery of the 6th (Pioneer) East Yorkshire Regiment, who stormed the hill with limited support in difficult conditions. These Pioneers were used in (arguably) the most important assault of the campaign. They were ably led, by Col Moore, (who had risen from the ranks) and were decimated within sight of their ultimate objective. Their attack was undermined by appalling planning and procrastination. There was no time for orders or battle preparation. It was a fragmented, uncoordinated attack, characterised by perhaps over-zealous leadership, tactical naivety, exhaustion and fatigue. (The men had to be kicked into action, from a state of near exhaustion). This superhuman effort resulted in failure, then denial and blame. The 6th East Yprkshire who had landed at Gallipoli in the early hours of the 7th August 1915, with 22 Officers and 750 Other ranks, had within 3 days, lost 15 Officers and 347 other ranks. Over 50 men from Hull died in Gallipoli on the 9th August 1915. The story of the 6th East Yorkshire at Tekke Tepe, is not a particularly well researched,  or well understood part of the campaign, outside a few specialists, but it encapsulates everything in one small action that was wrong about Gallipoli. 

The following recounts the progress of the 6Th East Yorkshires, after the Tekke Tepe attack.

 21st August 1915 – the attack on Scimitar Hill

Wyrall's "East Yorkshire Regiment in the Great War" shows that the 6th East Yorkshire Regiment had been in reserve from 10th to the 20th August at Nibrunesi Point where they had dug themselves in at the base of a cliff. On 20th August the 6thEast Yorkshires relieved the Northumberland Fusiliers in trenches South East of Chocolate Hill. They came under the orders of 34th Brigade who would attack "Hill W" the next morning.

The Salt Lake, Suvla Bay: the advance of 21st August 1915

The 6th Battalion were to dig in and support the Lancashire Fusiliers and the Dorset’s, who would attack the next morning. There was a delay due to lost orders and confusion, and the attack did not commence until 3pm on the 21st. When the Dorset’s and Lancashire’s left their trenches the 6th East Yorkshiresmoved forward to occupy these trenches. The Dorset’s and the Lancashire’s ran into stubborn resistance and so most of the 6th East Yorkshires were sent forward to support them. The 6th East Yorkshire's captured a Turkish trench in front of them and awaited relief. The 6th East York (Pioneers) had occupied Hill 70 (Scimitar Hill), next to W Hill the most vital of all the semicircle of heights overlooking Suvla Bay and were there only waiting for the brigade's further advance upon W Hill or Anafarta Sagir, to both of which it is the key. They held this trench overnight, but it became impossible to hold the next morning (22nd August) as the number of Turks increased and they had no bombs. 

THE DARDANELLES CAMPAIGN, 1915 - 1916Around 7.30 am the 6th East Yorkshires retreated to their original trenches and later that night they were relieved and moved back to their original reserve trenches at Nibrunesi point the following morning. The 6th East Yorkshire casualties by 22nd August 1915, included 26 Officers and 628 men. Officer casualties were 80% and other ranks 68%.

20th October 1915

The War Diary for the 6th (Service) Battalion East Yorkshire Regiment (Pioneers) on 20th Oct 1915 is edited below. It was written in very feint pencil and just legible. The Battalion was scattered over a place known to the troops as ‘Piccadilly Circus’ or 'Shrapnel Valley' due to heavy Turkish shelling. There are no records of battle casualties, but the War Diary contains long lists of men admitted to hospital and lists of men who arrived in drafts. Notably most posted to D Coy - a stark reminder that D Coy was virtually wiped out on the lower slopes of Tekke Tepe on 9th August.

"Working Parties A Coy Piccadilly Circus, Div Head Quarters ^ well [illegible - above?] XI Signal Depot, Field Ambulance dugouts. B Coy 9th A.C [Army Corps] New Head Quarters, Park Lane, Holborn, Jephson's Post Road (Oxford St). D Coy 9th A.C Head Quarters, 67th Coy RE - SW Mounted Brigade dugouts, Cannon Street. Two general road repairing parties under 2/Lieuts SIEBER and SCOTCHER. 2/Lieut HICKEY was wounded in the arm by shrapnel bullet whilst working near Piccadilly Circus & admitted into 35th Field Ambulance."

 

Gallipoli 100 Years on -  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-32456487

 

* (I am grateful to Edward Underhill who supplied the following information on his grandfather - 2nd Lt., James Theodore Underhill was born in Moseley, Staffordshire, 1892. His family emigrated to Canada in 1894 and he obtained his Land Surveyor's qualification at McGill University (West) which was later to become the University of British Columbia. Upon the outbreak of the war, he gained his qualification as an Infantry Officer in January of 1915 at the Provisional School of Infantry in Vancouver, BC and subsequently travelled to England, having missed the opportunity to join the first contingent of the Canadian Expeditionary Force (CEF). He was commissioned in March of 1915, joining the 6th (Service ) Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment, as 2nd Lieutenant  by the time of the actions around Teke Tepe. He was shot in the chest during the Gallipoli attack and wounded again in the right knee on 1/7/16 at Serre, serving with the 12th King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. He later served with the Canandian 245th Siege Battery RGA. He lost two brothers in the war and returned to Vancouver, Canada after the war)

 

 

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OPPY WOOD, 3rd May 1917 - The Hull Pals Attack

The Capture of Oppy Wood was an engagement, North East of Arras, between May and June 1917. The Germans were in possession of a fortified wood to the west of the village of Oppy, which overlooked British positions. The wood was 1-acre (0.40 ha) in area and contained many German observation posts, machine-guns and trench-mortars. The aim of the attack was to remove this defensive obstacle and divert German resources away from the main offensive, planned at Messines in early June 1917. In military terms, Oppy Wood was a diversionary attack, by the 92nd Brigade, of the 31st Division,during the Third Battle of the Scarpe (3–4 May). It was an attack on a half mile front, in unfavourable conditions, and against impenetrable German defences. It is also known as the Battle of Gavrelle. However, for the people of HullOppy Wood, would be forever remembered as the place where the Hull Pals made their name. In fierce fighting around the village, Hull lost more men on the 3rd May 1917, than any other. The attack failed and the final casualties totalled 326. 

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The main British attacking forces in this battle were the 10th, 11th and 12th Battalions of the East Yorkshire Regiment, known as the ‘Hull Pals’. They advanced up a slope, in the dark, in four waves, over difficult terrain, illuminated by German rockets and Very Lights. They faced Oppy Wood, which was elaborately fortified, and defended by experienced German troops. They struggled forward over three belts of barb wire entanglements. Unable to keep pace with their barrage, and were exposed to murderous German machine gun fire. Despite this, the Hull Pals continued to advance. One company fought their way into Oppy village itself, while the rest were held up. After attacking three times, they were forced to withdraw under constant fire. During the action, 2nd-Lieut. John Harrison, of the 11th Battalion, silenced an enemy machine-gun post single handedly and was posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross.

Preparations for the attack on Oppy began on the 1st May 1917. Officers and NCO’s of the 10th and 13th EYR, went forward to check the assembly positions and returned next morning to issue equipment for the advance. At 11pm on the 2nd May, the 11th and 12th EYR Battalions started to move to their assembly positions. The 10th EYR moved at 11.30pm. Start time for the attack was to be 3.45am on the 3rd May, with the 10th EYR positioned on the right flank, the 11th EYR in the centre and the 12th EYR on the left flank, all opposite Oppy Wood. A preliminary bombardment by nine Field Artillery Brigades and the use of extra machine guns was expected to cut the barb wire, neutralise all German resistance and leave the trenches intact for the Pals to occupy.  In reality, this failed to happen for a number of reasons. 

 1. On the 28th and 29th April, the Battle of Arleux had been fought on the same battleground and the 13th EYR had suffered a number of casualties. The assembly positions which had been heavily shelled, offered little cover and debris from that battle littered the ground, hindering coordinated movement. The 10th EYR Battalion history records that the assembly Image result for oppy wood picstrenches were “barely four feet deep, with no communications to the rear, nor any means of contact to left or right."

 2. Oppy Wood was full of fallen trees and tangled branches which gave the enemy great cover. A long slope of 1,000m to the west, left the British field artillery at extreme range. This reduced its accuracy and largely failed to cut the enemy wire.

 3. Oppy wood was a strongly defended position, guarded by experienced German soldiers. In front of Oppy Wood, lay a well organised trench system, protected by barb wire and good communications, which covered the Oppy wood and village from flanking attacks. The wood itself contained a large number of machine gun posts and all along the German lines, machine gun posts and mortars were well placed to repel any attack. The area was held by the 1st and 2nd German Guards, which the East Yorkshire Regimental history describes as, ‘some of the bravest of the enemy troops’. The Germans had strengthened the wood by developing defensive tactics learnt from the earlier Somme battles. The British had expected to encounter demoralised troops and thought that the creeping barrage would neutralise all resistance. However, some of the German wire at the south-western corner of the wood was uncut and rather than being shaken, the Germans were actually massing for a counter attack.

 4It was originally intended to make a night assault, to evade German machine-gun fire. However, the Third and First armies needed to attack in daylight and Douglas Haig enforced a compromise zero hour of 3:45 a.m. No preparations had been made for an advance at night, such as, putting out boards, luminous paint on the German wire, taking compass-bearings or organising intermediate objectives. Sunrise was not until 5:22 a.m. and it would not be possible to see objects in the dark, at 50 yards (46 m) until 4:05 a.m.

5. On the night of the attack, there was a full moon which did not set until sixteen minutes before the attack beagn. On many parts of the front, British troops assembling, were illuminated by the moon, exposing them to enemy fire. The 11th EYR war diary records “to get to the assembly positions, Companies had to go over the top of a rise within 1000 yards, with a moon low in the sky behind them.”

6. The German defenders saw the British infantry forming up in the moonlight, in an assembly trench just 250 yards (230 m) in front of them. At midnight, the German’s sent out a patrol and at 12:30 a.m., bombarded the British lines for twenty minutes. They then began a second bombardment from 1:30 a.m. until zero hour. The German bombardment then increased, when the British preliminary bombardment began and increased again when the attack started. The 11th EYR were laying out in the open, under a heavy bombardment, for over two hours. There were few British casualties, but the shelling caused considerable confusion, with A and D companies of the 11th EYR companies unable to form into their attacking positions. 

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The 13th East Yorkshire Diary records “Our barrage started at 3.45am advancing at a rate of 100 yards, every four minutes and the Battalion followed 50 yards behind the barrage. It was dark, from the smoke and dust caused by our barrage, and the hostile barrage, also the fact that we were advancing on a dark wood made it impossible to see when our barrage lifted off the German trench. Consequently the Hun had time to get his machine guns up. Machine guns were firing from within the wood from trees, as well as from the front trench, nevertheless the men went forward, attacked and were repulsed. Officers and NCO’s, reformed their men in No Man’s Land, under terrific fire and attacked again, and again were repulsed. Some even attacked a third time, some isolated parties got through the wood to OppyVillage and were reported there by aeroplanes at 6am. These men must have been cut off and surrounded later. The Battalion was so scattered and the casualties had been so heavy that it was decided to consolidate the only assembly trench we had when the battle started.” At 10pm the battalion was finally relieved by the 11th East Lancs and retired back to camp for a short rest. The 12th EYR, were also spotted moving up to their assembly trench and were heavily bombarded. Their War Diary writes: “The assembling took place in brilliant moonlight over quite unknown country and with four guides (from the 13th EYR). The enemy evidently saw the troops assembling and put up an intensive barrage followed by another one later. This considerably distinguished things and at zero hour, the blackest part of the night, the troops moved forward to the attack.” The first wave of the 12th EYR entered the German front line trench, which was strongly held, the second wave followed, but was forced to withdraw and eventually the first wave was beaten back out of the enemy line. Under heavy shell fire the 12th EYR to withdraw to their original assembly trench, where they remained all day, under heavy shelling and machine gun fire. They were later relieved during the night, on the 3rd/4th May, by the East Lancashire Regiment.

The 10th EYR also suffered a "tremendous" barrage on their assembly-positions, just before zero hour, which caused much disorganisation. The darkness in this area was increased by Oppy Wood itself and meant that the infantry could not see their barrage lift. The 10th EYR, on the right found areas of uncut wire and lost many casualties when they bunched up at the gaps, before reaching the wood. All four company commanders were wounded and the smoke and dust made it impossible to see what was going on at the flanks, and indeed obscured the objectives. The struggle to secure the German first line meant that the allied barrage had moved far ahead of the small parties that penetrated the German front trenches. A considerable number of men from the 10th EYR got into and beyond the first German line, some even penetrated OppyVillage itself. One gallant soldier even brought back eight German prisoners single handed. However it was impossible to get forward to consolidate the line. Survivors from the 10th EYR eventually withdrew to the original assembly trench where they started. Many troops were then cut off and captured, or forced back with many casualties. Many of the troops were stranded in 'No Man's land' and had to wait all day under fire from snipers, machine-guns and artillery until nightfall, before completing the retirement. The 10th EYR war diary found it difficult to give an accurate account of the battle. “A considerable number of men undoubtedly crossed the German line and got some way forward and possibly in places reached the first objective.” It was discovered after the war that the majority of the 10th Hull Commercials, who had been taken prisoner during the attack, had actually advanced as far as Oppy village itself.

Hull Casualties

Image result for oppy wood picsThe official figures from Battalion Diary records, report that the 'Hull Commercials' (10th EYR battalion) went into the attack with 16 Officers and 484 Other Ranks. Their losses were: 13 Officers and 223 Other Ranks. At least 69 men were killed on the 3rd May with an unknown number dying of wounds later. The 11th EYR suffered at least 56 fatalities on the 3rd May.

The 12th EYR reported two Officers and seven other ranks killed, 150 other ranks missing and one Officer and 127 other ranks wounded, plus one Officer dying of wounds. The 'Soldiers died in the Great War' records, list 81 other ranks killed in action on the 3rd May with the 12th EYR. The losses suffered by the 12th EYR, were so great, that they resulted in it being reformed into only two companies. The remnants of A & C companies were attached to the 10th EYR and the remains of Companies B and D were sent to the 11th EYR. Although the attack on Oppy Wood was repulsed with many British casualties, the operations did succeed in diverting German attention from the French front.

CWGC records show 223 men from the 10th, 11th, 12th & 13th East Yorkshire Regiment, died at Oppy Wood, on the 3rd May 1917. Another 53 men from the 8th EYR, died on the same day, attacking the village of Monchy, ten miles away from Oppy.

At least 123 of these 276 men, or 44.5% have a known Hull connection. Another 29 Hull men, also died on the 3rd May 1917, fighting for other regiments. This meant  a total of153 Hull men were killed on the 3rd May 1917. They included 17 men from the 8th EYR, 44 from the 10th EYR, 30 from the 11th EYR, 29 from the 12th EYR and 3 from the 13th EYR, all killed on the 3rd May 1917.

There would be many others who later died of wounds received on this day.

The CWGC, records that 580 men of the East Yorkshire regiment died during May and June 1917, and 7,815 men from the East Yorkshire regiment killed in the war. Many of these men would have come from Hull and the East Riding, as seen by cross checking CWGC records, Soldiers Died records which show enlistment areas and the addresses of the dead compiled on this website.

Cadorna Trench Raid

The Hull Pals later carried out a successful raid on Cadorna Trench on the 23rd and 24th June 1917. The 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th EYR’s each supplied two Officers and 50 other ranks for the raid which was led by Lt, Col., Ferrand from the 11th EYR. The raid was on a 40 yard front, with 50 yards between each battalion that attacked with rifle and bombing sections. Zero Hour was 10.20pm with a heavy bombardment of the German trench, during which the raiders left their position in two lines. Immediately as the barrage lifted, the raiders rushed the German first and second lines. The raid captured 200 prisoners and killed some 280 enemy, destroying dugouts and machine guns on the way. The raid lost 24 men, including Captain Saville, Lieutenant Wright and 2/Lieutenants Cliff and Oliver killed. Another 16 men were killed in the raid with four dying of wounds later. Another 28 men returned from the raid wounded. Sergeant Marritt won the DCM, but was killed on the raid. Oppy Wood was eventually captured on the 28th June 1917, with the East Yorkshires offering assistance. The 10th EYR formed the reserve Brigade, the 11th EYR held the front line with two companies and the 13th EYR was used for carrying parties.

Total Casualties

Image result for oppy wood picsOn 3 May, the 31st Division lost 1,900 casualties in the attack on Oppy Wood. The 2nd Division composite brigade had 517 losses, which left the division "bled white" with a "trench strength" of only 3,778 men. The Hull Commercials(10th battalion) went into the attack with 16 Officers and 484 Other Ranks. Their losses were: 13 Officers and 223 Other Ranks. The 11th and 12th Battalions, which also numbered men from Hull in their ranks, had similar losses. On 8 May, the 5th Bavarian Division lost 1,585 casualties in the counter-attack at Fresnoy. In the attack of 28 June the 31st Division lost 100 men and the 5th Division casualties were 352 men. Oppy wood was eventually captured on the 28th June 1917. The 10th EYR were held in reserve, the 11th EYR occupied the front line trenches and the 13th EYR were used as carrying parties.  

Commemoration

* The units which attacked Oppy Wood were awarded the battle honour Oppy. A wood on the outskirts of North Hull, is named Oppy, as a War memorial to the Hull Pals involved in the battle on the 3rd and 4th May, 1917.

* On the 16th October 1932, the people of Hull and the Commune of Oppy, unveiled a permanent memorial at the scene of the battle. The ground of which the memorial stands was donated by the Vicomte and Vicomtesse du Bouexic de la Driennays in memory of their 22 year old son Pierre, an NCO of the French 504th Tank Regiment, who was killed in action at Guyencourt on 8 August 1918. 

* Oppy Wood, was also immortalised in paint, by war artist John Nash. It is held at the Imperial War Museum (reference ART 2243) and is entitled "Oppy Wood, Evening, 1917". It is one of a series of paintings commissioned by the British War Memorial Committee set up by the Ministry of Information early in 1918 and is 2 metres high and wide. The lower half of the composition has a view inside a trench with duckboard paths leading to a dug-out. Two British infantrymen stand to the left of the dug-out entrance, one of them on the firestep looking over the parapet into No Man's Land. There is a wood of shattered trees littered with corrugated iron and planks at ground level to the right of the composition. The sky stretches above in varying shades of blue with a spectacular cloud formation framing a clear space towards the top of the composition.

Image result for oppy wood picsThe magnificent Oppy memorial to the men of Kingston-upon-Hull and all local units, who gave their lives in the Great War: Many of the casualties of 31st Division, who died at Oppy, were from the Hull area. 

A Global War

The First World War was the first truly global conflict – the battle raged not just in the trenches of the Western Front, but in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Huge armies deployed new weapons to devastating effect. Over nine million soldiers and seven million civilians lost their lives. Empires crumbled, revolution engulfed Russia, and America rose to become a dominant world power. 

The impact of war can be measured in many ways, such as the cost in lives, the financial costs and the consequences the war had on future world history. In terms of statistical casualties, and lives lost, the First World War was the fifth most costly war in World history. All told, 16.5 million people died and 21.2 million were wounded from all combatant nations during World War 1. We will never know the true extent of civilian casualties - the numbers of those lost in occupied countries, such as Belgium and France, the victims of attrocities in Serbia or Russia or the numbers of Armenians extermnated in Turkey. The losses are further distorted by the Influenza epidemic in 1918, which killed another 20 million of the world's people and soldiers who were weakened by war.

The Cost in Lives

Image result for the unknown warrior 1920From 1914 to 1918, Britain and Commonwealth forces lost nearly 900,000 military personnel and 1.7 million men were wounded. In Britain that was about 10% of all men serving killed, and many of these were young men, with 70% of those killed, aged between 20 - 24 years old. Scotland which traditionally provided recruits for the British army's elite regiment's, lost 148,000 men. This was 25% of those that volunteered and more than twice the national average rate of fatalities for the whole of Britain. Over 38,000 Irishmen and 20,000 Welshmen also died in the war. Throughout the United Kingdom, one in six families suffered a direct bereavement, 192,000 wives had lost their husbands, and nearly 400,000 children had lost their fathers. A further 500,000 children had lost one of more of their siblings. Appallingly, one in eight wives died within a year of receiving news of their husband's death. 

Image result for the unknown warrior 1920

There were also 1.7 million British wounded, of which  80,000 were gas victims, 30,000 were made deaf, 80,000 had 'shell shock', and there were 250,000 amputees. The wounded increased over time. At the end  of 1928, nearly 2.8 million war veterans were receiving a war disability pension. There were still 65,000 soldiers in mental hospitals by 1929. Millions of men had been uprooted and taken away from home for the first time. They were exposed to new vices, like achohol, violence, tobacco, profanity and prostitution. There were over 400,000 venereal disease cases treated during the war, which would have emotional and physical consequences for soldiers of all ranks and their families.

Death in the the First World War caused untold psychological casualties. These were both soldiers and civilians, who either saw death personally, or suffered a profound loss of a loved one. The huge numbers of casualties, over a four year war,  was both shocking and unprecedented, in the twentieth century. Almost every family had lost someone they knew, and probably none in the language of the time, died 'nobly'. More often than not , most soldiers were slaughtered in large numbers, and died in the most horrific ways. Few soldiers were killed in hand to hand fighting. Most were obliterated by a distant shell or cut to pieces, by close up machine gun fire. They drowned in mud or disappeared, and had no known grave. Death in this new industrial warfare, was often annonomous, indiscriminate, random and unpredictable. Such pointless deaths could not be easily understood, or explained, or even dealt with, by those who grieved. Civilian soldiers, who had volunteered for war, were not trained to deal with this trauma psychologically. For many, the haunting memories of terrible battles and lost friends, would emotionally scar them for life, and their families.

With so many men blown to pieces and missing abroad, most families were denied the opportunity to visit a local grave. (Britain did not repatriate their war dead and this was strictly enforced from Spring 1915). There was no welfare state, or modern counselling, to advise people how to deal with their grief. Many families had to live with bereavement, depression, and sorrow, and make do, the best they could, on their own, with limited support. The way people processed their emotions would vary across, class, region, gender and religion. 

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Britain's Upper Classes suffered disproportionately worse, with some 25% of Officers killed and wounded, as opposed to 8% of working class casualties during the war. The decimation of the 'Pal' Battalions, particularly affected Northern towns and cities. Scotland suffered the highest proportion of war casualties. Middle class women were more likely to write about their bereavement and express their feelings in correspondence and commemorations. They left a number of books, letters, church plaques and other memorials, as a poignant reminder on how war devasted family life. A good example of this, is Vera Brittain's memoir, Testament of Youth, which spoke for a generation, about the losses of war. 

Britain also became a more secular country. Church attendances began to fall, as people struggled to reconcile their losses with their religion. They turned to new faiths, like 'Spiritualism', to reconnect directly with their dead. The First World War profounly changed British social attitudes towards bereavement, mourning and commemorating death. The ritualised mourning of the Victoria era, with the 'deathbed' scene, surrounded by loved ones, was no longer possible. To preserve public morale, expressions of open sorrow, were discouraged. Private funerals were replaced with more public ceremonies for the dead. These included the creation of new rituals, like the Cenotaph,  the 'Tomb of the Unknown Warrior', Armistice day, the wearing of poppies, and the very public 'two minute' silence. There was demand from civilians for battlefield tours and organised pilgrimages. The First World War began the first package holiday for the masses. We will never know how many lives were blighted by the experiences of the First World War. Although literature and family stories, handed down, tell a time, of great sorrow. We can only speculate on the the sufferings of orphans, war widows, and the disabled servicemen who struggled to cope. The war experience would impact on family life, leading to alcholism, violence, organised crime, and increasing suicides in the following decades. Many veterans were left with depression, anxiety and untreated madness. Some 65,000 British soldiers were still living in mental inststitutions by 1929.

https://encyclopedia.1914-1918-online.net/article/bereavement_and_mourning_great_britain

The loss of 750,000 young men during the war, and nearly 2 million wounded, affected Britain's demographics. After the war, women far outnumbered men and many women were never to marry or have children. The 1921 United Kingdom Census found 19,803,022 women and 18,082,220 men in England and Wales, a difference of 1.72 million, which newspapers called the "Surplus Two Million Women." In the 1921 census, there were 1,209 single women, aged 25 to 29, for every 1,000 men. In 1931, 50% of these women were still single, and 35% of them did not marry while still able to bear children. Many women after the war emigrated to Commonwealth countries, in search of a new life. However, the losses to the Commonwealth nations that supported Britain were also severe. In all, 250,000 killed and 500,000 wounded. New Zealand lost 18,000 killed and 50,000 wounded out of the 112,000 who served. This was a casualty rate of 66%. Australia's casualties were 80,000 killed and 137,000 wounded, 64% of those who enlisted. Similarly, Canada and Newfoundland lost 62,000 and 172,000 wounded, a casualty rate of 39%; South Africa lost 7,000 killed and 12,000 wounded, 13% of those who served, and India, who provided more Commonwealth troops, than all the others put together, suffered 74,000 killed, 67,000 wounded, or 7% of those that served. In addition, it is estimated that 100,000 men from the African and Caribbean Colonies, who acted as carriers and labourers, died of disease and exhaustion, with another 18,000 killed in action. 

map of WWI war deaths

In France, where much of the war raged, approximately 11% of the entire population, was killed or wounded during the war. Almost 1.4 million Frenchmen died in the service of their country and another 4.2 million men were wounded – a casualty rate of 74% of all those mobilized in the French Empire. They left behind 600,000 widows, 986,000 orphans, and 1.1 million war invalids. Ten percent of the male population of France had been wiped out, a figure that rises to 20% for the 'under 50' age group. Of the 470,000 males born in France in 1890, and who were 28 years old when the war ended, half were killed or seriously wounded.

The total number of First World War deaths includes about 10 million military personnel and about 7 million civilians. The Entente Powers (also known as the Allies) lost about 6 million soldiers, while the Central Powers lost about 4 million. At least 2 million died from diseases and 6 million went missing, presumed dead.
The youth of Europe was decimated. Of the 700,000 British war dead, no fewer than 71% were between the ages of 16 and 29 years. The CWGC records, show that 14,108 British soldiers, were aged 18 or younger, when they died. In Belgium more than 40,000 young men were killed.
About two-thirds, of military deaths in World War I were in battle. This was unlike any previous conflict during the 19th century, when the majority of deaths were due to disease. Improvements in medicine, as well as the increased lethality of military weaponry were both factors in this development. Nevertheless disease, including the 'Spanish flu', still caused about one third of total military deaths for all belligerents.

Financial Cost of World War One

World War One cost the world over $3.8 Trillion dollars (This was mostly made up by Germany, $984bn, Britain, $1,205bn, France, $641bn and America, $787bn). Britain paid the most, and funded the war by selling off foreign investments and borrowing heavily from the United States. This effectively ensured that America remained an ally throughout the war, and the USA became the richest power afterwards. In the United Kingdom, funding the war had a severe economic cost. From being the world's largest overseas investor, Britain became one of its biggest debtors, with interest payments forming around 40% of all government spending.

Inflation more than doubled between 1914 and its peak in 1920, while the value of the Pound Sterling fell by 61.2%. Reparations in the form of free German coal depressed local industry, precipitating the 1926 General Strike. The Versailles Treaty set German repayments for the cost of the war at 132 Billion Marks. This was to be repaid in cash or raw materials, land given up and services provided. These repayments were suspended in 1932, by which point Germany had repaid 20.5 Billion Marks (about $6 billion).

British private investments abroad were sold, raising £550 million. However, £250 million in new investment also took place during the war. The net financial loss was therefore approximately £300 million; less than two years investment, compared to the pre-war average rate and more than replaced by 1928. Material loss was "slight": the most significant being 40% of the British merchant fleet sunk by German U-boats. Most of this was replaced in 1918 and all immediately after the war.

The most enduring legacy of the war was increased censorship and state control over people lives. Even in free market Britain, the Government's share of the economy rose from 9.8% of GDP in 1913, to over 37% by 1918. In Germany, the Government was responsible for 59%. of all output. The need to win the war, meant that the State increasingly regulated the activities of private citizens. Government's rationed food, banned strikes, censored newspapers, controlled private property, wages and taxation. They effectively dictated what people did, said, read and thought. Many of these rules, censorship and legislation, continued long after the war. Yet for all the sufferings and restrictions, ordinary people found a new voice. Women enjoyed new freedoms and began to demand the vote. Trade Union membership grew. Soon the deference to the 'Officer Class' would be eroded and replaced with more democratic forms of Government. State intervention was tolerated, but with the expectation of better schools, housing and health care. 

The Commonwealth Nations

Abroad, there was growing assertiveness amongst Commonwealth nations after World War 1. Battles, such as Gallipoli, for Australia and New Zealand, Hill 70 and Vimy Ridge, for Canada, Deville Wood for South Africa, and Neuve Chapelle for Indian Troops, led to increasing national pride and identity. Image result for the unknown warrior 1920There was a greater reluctance to remain subordinate to Britain, leading to the growth f diplomatic autonomy in the 1920s. Loyal dominions, such as Newfoundland, were deeply disillusioned by Britain's apparent disregard for their soldiers, eventually leading to the unification of Newfoundland with the Confederation of Canada. Colonies, such as India and Nigeria, also became increasingly assertive because of their participation in the war. The populations in these countries became increasingly aware of their own power and Britain's fragility. In Ireland, the delay in finding a resolution to the 'Home Rule' issue, partly caused by the war, as well as the 1916 Easter Rising and a failed attempt to introduce conscription in Ireland, increased support for separatist radicals. This led indirectly to the outbreak of the Irish War of Independence in 1919.Image result for the unknown warrior 1920 The creation of the Irish Free State that followed this conflict, in effect represented a territorial loss for the United Kingdom, that was all but equal to the loss sustained by Germany, (and furthermore, compared to Germany, a much greater loss in terms of its ratio to the country's prewar territory).

The Cultural Impact of the War

Britain spent four and half years fighting the First World War and the next 100 years trying to understand it's meaning and purpose. There are so many myths, opinions, politics and propaganda surrounding World War One, that we no longer know what we feel about it, or even if we should celebrate it. Was the 'Great War' a triumph, or an unspeakable horror? Do we side with the War Poets or the Politicians? We can not even agree how World War One should be taught in schools today. It has been a cultural battlefield for every generation that followed it. British attitudes to the Great War have varied and changed over time and even different countries remember World War 1 in different ways. The following is a brief summary of Britain's changing views of World War One. 

Numbed by this great loss of life and uncertainty about the war, the British establishment, that had sent so many men to their deaths, assumed control of the war dead. A whole raft of institutions and ceremonies were created to commemorate the dead, which still survive today. The 'Commonwealth War Graves Commission' was established to ensure that all the fallen, were remembered by a war grave, or a memorial near the battlefield. In 1914, Sir Fabien Ware, who had been a commander of a Red Cross Ambulance unit, began to document the locations of soldiers graves near the front line. His continued efforts ultimately led to the establishment of the Imperial War Graves commission in May 1917.  Fabien Ware also designed the white military headstones, that we see in war cemeteries today; and he designed many war cemeteries and war memorials over the next 20 years, using the great architects of the day. The Poet, Rudyard Kipling, selected the phrase "Known unto God", which was to be inscribed upon these white tombstones. The phrase 'Lest we Forget' also comes from the Kipling poem, "Recessional", and is used as the wording on many memorials, as a plea not to forget past sacrifices. Kipling also worked with Winston Churchill to ensure that all gravestones were uniformally, the same shape and size, regardless of military rank. The rows of white, matching gravestones, lining military cemeteries are their legacy. Sir Edwin Lutyens designed the Whitehall Cenotaph, as a national memorial to the war's dead in 1919. Prime Minister, Lloyd George, chose the inscription 'The Glorious Dead', which was carved on the Cenotaph; Earl Haig, the Commander of the British forces, founded the British Legion in 1921, to give ex servicemen a voice. An 'Armistice Day' was initiated to be held on annually on the 11th November, the day war ended. The South African, Percy FitzPatrick, suggested a 'Two Minute Silence' at 11am on every Armistice Day, so that "in perfect stillness, the thoughts of everyone may be concentrated on reverent remembrance of the glorious dead.The tradition of wearing red poppies was then established to remember the nation's 'Glorious Dead'. 

Image result for the unknown warrior 1920Such was the nation's catastrophic loss, politicians renamed the 1914-18 conflict, as 'The Great War', or the 'War to End All Wars'. Civilian views of the war remained mixed and confused for decades to come. Many of those who had lived through the war, felt that they had survived a great, world event, and were proud to remember the sacrifice, hardship and heroism. Initially, there was much relief and celebration. Armistice Day, for example, became a 'resturant bonanza' and many surviving veterans celebrated their comradship and war time experiences. Others however, struggled to make sense of the war. They were traumatised by their experiences. Sorrow and bereavement would haunt nations for generations. Over time, more people saw the war as a futile waste of lives and an end to world stability. Most opinions were framed by war time propaganda and the Politicians and Poets of the time. Many civilans had known little about the war or the true horrors of the fighting. There was no television, news channels or social media, to communicate the war then. The silence of the returning war veterans only added to the Great War's mythology. The 'Cenotaph' was successful and long lasting, because in some way it provided a blank canvass for people to project their mixed feelings about the war. 

In 1928, on the 10th anniversary of the ending of the Great War, Britain again reflected on the War experience. West End Plays, like RC Sheriff's,'Journey's End', and the publication of many memoirs, such as 'All Quiet on the Western Front', 'Cry Havoc' and 'Death of a Hero', revealed the true horrors of the Great War, to a mass civilian audience, for the first time. The stories of terrible sacrifice, and pointless slaughter prompted a revulsion to war. A British pacifist movement starting in the 1920's, grew increasingly during the 1930's. Some campaigned for disarmament and economic sanctions against military agressors. Others campaigned for appeasement. Many organisations, such as the 'No More War Movement' and the 'Peace Pledge Union' were established to totally denounced war. This was to leave Britain very unprepared, in 1939, when the next World War began. After the Second World War, the British Government in 1948, renamed the 'Great War' as the 'First World War', to distinguish it from the '1939-45 Conflict'. 'Armistice Day' was also replaced with 'Remembrance Sunday', to remember those lost in all wars, and not just those of the First World War. These changes were significant. It highlighted that the the Great War, was not the 'War to End all Wars' and made people re-evaluate the purpose of the World War 1. 

Image result for the unknown warrior 1920The 1960's generation shaped our view of the First World war again. 1964 was the Great War's 50th aniversary. It was a chance for a new generation to discover World War One afresh. However, they viewed the war through the tinted nightmare of World War Two and the possibility of a new nuclear war with the 'Cuban Missile Crises'. The 1960's generation was far more egalitarian and less deferential. They mocked the attitudes of their predecessors, and were more interested in the individual experiences of ordinary soldiers, rather than the posterings of upper class politicians and generals. The release of the 26 part, television documentary, 'The Great War', brought a 'dead' conflict to life. Books like Alan Clarke's 'The Donkeys' was a scathing examination of British Generals. Plays like 'Oh What a Lovely War', savaged the futility of war and also satirised the class war within it. Academics revised WW1 further, arguing that 'The Great War', was a war with no moral jusitification, or clear cause. Its pointless carnage was only illuminated by the rediscovery of the long forgotten war poets. These war poets defined the war for an Anti War 1960's generation. Carefully edited selections of war poetry were repackaged, showing a poetic learning curve from Rupert Brook's innocent patriotism, to Siegfried Sassoon's angry satire and then Wilfred Owen's bleak pity and horrors of war. The fact that Wilfred Owen had won the Military Cross for enthusiastically machine gunning the enemy, was conveniently forgotten and his war letters and diaries were doctored to airbrush these memories. Britain's obsession for the soldier poets, shaped how World War One was taught in schools for decades and how the war would be publically remembered. The Great War would now be defined by the horrors of trench life on the Western Front. The 'Blackadder Goes Forth' comedy series, which lampoons British Generals, and has been used as a teaching aid in schools, still echoes public perceptions of the First World War as a war of futile attrition fought by Britain in trenches, on the Western Front. It ignores the fact that the Great War was a global war, fought by many nations, on land, sea and air, throughout the world. The war in fact was won not just by soldiers on the battlefield, but by civilians in the factories at home. By the end of the war, the Allies were maximising resources and out producing the enemy, in every war winning technology - planes, heavy guns, tanks and ships. The Allies were also evolving and sharing new tactics to use these weapons more effectively. The Allies had more manpower than the Central Powers. They had learnt to share their war time responsibilities and could co-ordinate their efforts better than Germany. The Allies in 1918, included America with the most money, France with the biggest army and Britain with the largest Navy, which increasing blockaded the Germans and overwhelmed Germany into submission. 

The Legacy of the Great War

While the meaning of the Great War has changed over time, it is possible after 100 years to take a more balanced view. It is becoming accepted that the Great War was not a 'bad' or 'unjust' war, at least from an Allied point of view. It was fought against German military aggression and to protect the sovereignty of small states like Belgium, as well as the integrity of British power. What went wrong was the bad peace that followed. We can now remember the scale of sacrifices made at the time, without allowing any doubts about the justice of the war, preventing our respect for the fallen.

The legacy of the Great War still resonates. In Britain, the war helped postpone the considerable domestic strife of 1914. This included increasing industrial strikes, demands for Independence in Ireland, Scotland and Wales, and growing Suffragette militancy. The Great War forged a national identity, which helped sustain the British people through the Second World War and kept the United Kingdom, united for another 50 years. However, the memory of the Great War and its casualties, also made Britain very wary about Europe. It would not be until 1973, that Britain joined a European Union, and Britain is still divided over whether it should remain a part of Europe today. For the first time, the war forced British Government's to intervene in the daily lives of individuals, on a mass scale. Successive generations would come to expect their Governments to expand these powers and responsibilities, and manage national health, welfare and taxation. The war also extended democracy with millions of British Servicemen given the vote for the first time. Some women also achieved more political rights through the First World War. The Great War generated a quantum leap in industry, technology, medicine, culture and international politics, which have all benefited society and daily life in some way. 

Although, the First World War did not resolve the problems that had started it, it had a profound change on World history. It firstly contained German and Austrian militarism, (if only for a short time). It moved Europe from an age of Empire, to an era of new Nation States and fledling democarcies. It gave Eastern Europeans their independence and freedom. It gave a sense of 'National Identity' to Australia, New Zealand, Canada and India. It helped Russia become the world's, first, Communist State and also launched America as a World Super Power. The ideas for which the war was fought over, also endured - Democarcy and Liberalism, religious faith and Nationalism. It inspired a 'League Of Nations', a forerunner to the United Nations, as a mechanism to resolve international conflict and promote world peace. The League of Nations may have prevented a Second World War (939-45), if America had remained part of it? Instead, President, Woodrow Wilson, who had proposed the League of Nations, allowed America to withdraw its' support. Without the United States backing, the League of Nations was powerless to intervene and prevent the rise of fascism. In hindsight, we know that the First World War haunted those that experienced it, and laid the seeds for further world conflict. Revolution, Republicism and Fascism would flourished after the Great War and dominate the Twentieth Century.

The First World War resolved few of the grievances that started it. We still live with its unresolved consequences today - with the troubles in Northern Ireland, the Balkans and the Middle East. The 'Great War 1914-18' was not the 'War to End all Wars' -  It left dangerous loose ends, and bequeathed the world a terrible message, -  that 'Global War can affect change', that 'Global War can fulfill personal ambitions', and that 'Global War can work'. Individuals, like Adolf Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, would rework these lessons, causing great human suffering. Modern dictators and extremists of all kinds, still believe that Global War can work for them.

About the Author

My name is Paul Bishop. I have lived and worked in Hull, for the last 30 years.

My interest in the Hull Memorial started in the mid 1980’s, when I lived in Folkestone Street, off Sculcoates Lane, in Hull. While waiting outside a white, telephone box (this was before mobile phones!), I noticed the 'Great War' memorial, at the entrance of St Mary’s Church, on Sculcoates Lane. There stood in the church yard, a life-size, 'Crucified Christ', carved from solid wood, errected in memory to those lost in the 'Great War'. Inside the church, were the names of 175 men from the Sculcoates Parish, inscribed on a stone pillar, who had died in the First World War. They were just a list of names and no other details.

This seemed an extraordinary, high loss of life, from one Parish. I was curious to find out more about these names. Who were these men, what did they do, where did they live and what happened to them and their families? As many of the houses surrounding the Church were built before the First World War, I was interested to see where the men may have lived in the area?

Answering these questions was difficult. There was no internet, or easy access, to online records, then. I spent hundreds of hours of spare time, in between work, visiting local libraries, researching electoral registers, reading local newspapers, books and military diaries. Copying records by hand was slow, and accessing other records was expensive.

However, as I became more experienced in retrieving and recording information, my research quickened and a fascinating story unfolded of Hull during the First World War. I learnt about Hull, its history and the lives of ordinary people, swept up in a World conflict. I discovered that not only had the First World War had a devastating impact on the Sculcoates area, but the same story was replicated all across Hull. Therefore what started initially as a hobby, to trace a few names on a local war memorial, became over time, a major project, to record all those from Hull that died in the First World War.

However, to really remember the dead it became necessary to find out more about them. War memorials needed to be more than just a list of names. The digital age now allows us to touch a name on a memorial, and produce a photograph, or share a link, to a personal story, that we can all connect with. I therefore developed the 'Kingston upon Hull, Memorial 1914-18', to make all local memorials more interactive. It was a journey that took me on many paths, exploring memorials, churches, workplaces, and cemeteries. I even visited the battlefields abroad where Hull men had fought and died.

The name of the ‘ww1hull.org.uk’ website is easy to remember. WW1Hull, does what it says, organising all the information on Hull, in World War One. It records all the details from Hull’s many WW1 memorials, and arranges the names of the dead by street. It links each name to a satelite map, so it can be seen where they lived, and every day, remembers the names of Hull men, who died on this day during the War. This enables the reader to assess the impact of the war on Hull communities.

All the names of the dead are listed to emphasize their existence as individuals. Where possible, some personal information has been provided, on each man, to highlight the enormity of their loss, to those that they left behind..

The reader can search the database, in may ways, by name, by street, by regiment, or the date died. They can also discover more about Hull, during the 'Great War', on a variety of links to other sources. 

My website is free to use. There are no charges or fees required, to access this information. My many years of research, are my gift to the City, as Hull is my home and its' people have been good to me. It seems appropriate to release this information, now in 2014, in line with the Centenary Anniversary, of the start of the First World War. I also hope it will increase our understanding of Hull's history, and complement the wider work, of Hull as the City of Culture in 2017.

I must sincerely thank and acknowledge all the help past and present, from individuals and organizations, that lent support and provided information to this work. They are many and they know who they are. In particular, I would like to acknowledge the work of Malcolm and Mary Mann, who many years ago, took it upon themselves, to visit memorials and record their details by hand. I never met them, but their efforts inspired this work, and I hope they would approve. I also thank Chris Smith, from 'virtual riders', who designed this site, and the 'Goodwin Centre' who first took an interest in my work. Also, all the sterling assistance, provided by Hull City Council's Library staff; the Hull History Center; the Commonwealth War Graves Commission; and the Imperial War Museum. However, this is just the start. It is hoped that in time, more records, stories and photographs will be added to the website, in order to make this a comprehensive and accurate record of Hull in the First World War.

Every person recorded on the Hull Memorial has their own unique story and there are over eight thousand stories to tell. The potential of all these people was lost to the world, but they are remembered here, now.       

Paul Bishop

 

In Memory of my Grandmother, Phyllis Gladwin, who helped raise me,

and her Grandfather, Petty Officer, William Littleford, 14147, Royal Navy, HMS 'Clan McNaughton', lost at sea, 3rd February 1915, aged 55, (No Survivors):

her Uncles, Gunner, Edward John Parker, 940567, Royal Field Artillery. 'D' Bty, 4th (London) Howitzer Bde, died of wounds 9th July 1916, aged 18 years, buried Warlincourt Military cemetery, France; and,

Private, Ernest Raymond Middleton, 40662, Middlesex Regiment 12th Bn, killed 15th January 1917, aged 19, buried Puchervillers Military cemetery, Somme,

and her husband, Cpl, Frank Edward Nash, 1460102, Royal Air Force, killed 30th August 1944, aged 35, buried Les Authieux Churchyard, France.

Also to other relatives:- 

Private, Leonard Edward Nash, 225101, Royal Fusiliers (City of London) 1st Bn, died of wounds 21st July 1917, aged 19, buried Wimereaux.

Sgt, Herbert James Clarke, 358, Royal Fusiliers 10th Bn, killed in action, 10th July 1916, buried Becourt cemetery, Somme.

L/Cpl, Sam Lister, 15200, West Riding regiment 10th Bn, killed in action ,10th July 1916, aged 28, Thiepval, Somme

Private, Joseph Lister, 205365, West Riding Regiment 2/5th Bn, died of wounds, 22nd November 1917, aged 22, Rocquigny cemetery, Somme.

Private, Arthur Lister,  161817, West Yorkshire Regiment 10th Bn, killed in action, 23rd April 1918, aged 22, Forceville cemetery, Somme.

Private, Harry William Bishop, 1624, Australian Infantry, AIF, 44th Bn, killed in action, 11th October 1917, aged 42, Ypres (Menin Gate).

They gave their tomorrow, for my today.

Author and Researcher

Air Raids on Hull

destruction-in-Porter-Stree

Britain was the first county in history to experience widespread strategic bombing of civilians. Two large, rigid air ships, named Zeppelins L3 & L4, after their creator Count Ferdinand Von Zeppelin, dropped bombs on eastern coastal towns in January 1915. They caused casualties in Great Yarmouth and Kings Lynn.

As in the Second World War, the Humber estuary and River Hull made the City an easy target for aircraft to find and attack. Hull quickly established its own Anti Aircraft Unit to defend against attack. Stentorian Buzzers, or steam whistles were created to warn citizens of attack. Hull created the largest buzzer ever called 'Big Lizzie'  and the ‘Hull Mail’ reported the following on 25th January 1915 – “ Arousing the Public in the event of certain happenings, for which the Germans will be responsible, the public at Hull are to be warned by the shrill blast of steam whistles. The steam organ valve whistles are being supplied by Messers George Clark and sons, Waterhouse Lane. The type to be used in Hull are 6in in diameter.” (Hull's 'Big Lizzie' Buzzer below) 

Zeppelin raids caused widespread fear among the civillian population and during 1915 careful preparation was made to manage the impact of air raids. Hull was divided into six districts - West, North West, Central, North East, East and the River section. Air raid drills were established and if an alarm was raised, 3,000 volunteer Special Constables would turnout to patrol the streets and ensure all lights were put out. Lights on the ground could help Zeppelins work out where they were, so it was important to have a complete blackout. Hundreds of Boy Scouts were used as dispatch riders, messengers and stretcher bearers. During 1915, 25 dessing stations were established in all parts of the City, staffed by Doctors and Members of the St John’s Ambulance Association to administer First Aid. By 1916, Britain also developed guns and searchlights to help defend against Zeppelins. They realised that the Zeppelin balloons were vulnerable to explosive shells which set light to the Hydrogen inside. Hull's defences for the first two years were controlled by General Ferrier and the practice was to sound the alarm as soon as aircraft were sighted. However, when Major General Sir Stanley Von Donop took over control, alarms were not sounded until danger threatened the City. This saved much inconvenience.   No automatic alt text available.

(Photograph above, of damage caused by the Zeppelin raid on Edwin Place, Porter Street, Hull in 1916 Three people were killed and several injured here. Also the Zeppelin attack on Hull Minster)

The first of eight Zeppelin raids on Hull, began on 5/6th June 1915 and  the lighting restrictions imposed made Hull “the darkest city in the Kingdom” for the rest of the war. Capable of travelling at around 85 miles per hour and carrying up to two tons of bombs, Zeppelins wreaked havoc on a largely unprotected Hull. Dropping incendaries and exposives from heights of around 3,000 feet, they sparked raging fires, damaging many buildings, including the Holy Trinity Church. These air attacks were a new and terrifying experience for Hull civilians. There were no Air Raid shelters, people used Pickering Park and Mr TR Ferens East Hull stables or  hid under the stairs as protection from this 'death from the skies'. Lack of knowledge intensified fear. Parents told their children to be quiet or whisper, in case they attracted a bomb.  Clocks were stopped to avoid their 'ticking' giving a signal to the enemy. While many of the air raids were aimed at Hull's docks, the bombs inevitably fell on the overcrowded houses nearby. This caused great panic and hardship to the densely packed communities. No automatic alt text available.Over 160 Hull citizens became casualties in these air raids during World War 1.On one particular Monday there were 14 false alarms.  (Above Bomb damage in Hull's High Street)

In all, there were 51 air attack warnings and at least eight air attacks on Hull during the First World War.

1. The first air raid in Hull occurred on Sunday 5th June 1915 at midnight. The alarm buzzers had previously blown five times before, and as nothing had happened, many people ignored the alarm. The Zeppelin L.9, commanded by Captain Heinrich Mathy, had been prevented from reaching London by high winds. It was spotted flying over Hedon at 11.45pm, and arrived over the sleeping City of Hull, two minutes later. The air raid lasted 30 minutes, cruising back and forth over the city, dropping 13 high explosives and 47 incendiaries. These bombs in sequence hit Constable Street, Coltman Street, Campbell Street, South Parade, Porter Street, Queens Street, Blanket Row, East Street, and Waller Street. The last bomb fell in the Humber Dock, damaging a cargo ship called the 'Crocus'. Forty shops were destroyed, including the large Edwin Davis shop in Queen Street. No automatic alt text available.

 

2. Holy Trinity church was also bombed causing £100,000 in damage. One bomb left a hole in the High Street, some 20 feet in diameter and 8 feet deep which disrupted traffic. After half an hour of bombing, the Zeppelin L.9, headed home around 12.20am. The air raid killed 24 Hull people and injured another 40 civilians. Among the deaths were a father and two daughters in Campbell Street, two children burnt to death in South Parade, two brothers in Blanket Row and a mother and son in Waller Street. The raid provoked much anti German feeling in Hull and led to riots, which targeted German sounding property.  Another raid by the Zeppelin L.9, intended for Hull on 9th August 1915, was blown off course and bombed Goole instead. It killed 16 civilians. 

3. The 5th March 1916, was a snowy Sunday evening, when the air raid started at 12 midnight. Two Zeppelins, the L.11 & the L.14, unable to reach Rosyth in Scotland, due to high winds, began to bomb Hull instead. The attack lasted over an hour. In Queens Street a café, a Co-operative branch and several shops were totally destroyed. Railings at the South West corner of Holy Trinity Church were uprooted and the great West window was broken causing £25,000 damage. Houses were bombed in Linnaeus Street, Porter Street, Queens Street, Church Street, and Selby Street. Earle’s Shipyard was also hit. In all 17 civilians were killed, including three sisters in Linnaeus Street and a mother and her 4 children at 32 Collier Street. There were also another 52 people injured. The frustration of citizens at the complete lack of defences led to several disturbances. A Royal Flying Corp vehicle in Hull was stoned by an angry mob and a flying Officer was attacked in Beverley. As a result, mobile guns and searchlights arrived in Hull on 16th March 1916.

4. On 5th April 1916 at 9.10pm, the Zeppelin L.11 returned to Hull and at a height of 12,000 feet was caught in searchlights and hit. It dropped to about 6.000 feet. Only one bomb was dropped in Hull which damaged a private house in Portobello Street. No one was killed or injured, but Jesse Mathews from Barnsley Street died of shock. 

5. On 8-9th August 1916 the Zeppelin L.24 attacked Hull. This later became known as the 'Selby Street Raid', killing between 8 or 10 people and injuring 20 more. It was a dark, cloudy Tuesday night, but when the clouds lifted at midnight, the Zeppelin L.24, returning home from an inland raid, attacked Hull at 1.15am. It dropped high explosive and incendiary bombs on Anlaby Road and the railway, causing damage and deaths in Selby Street, Sandringham Street and Linnaeus Street. The deaths included two mothers and their daughters and three year old John Broadley at 4 Roland Avenue, Arthur Street. Two people also died of shock and another 20 civilians were injured. Many  sought safety in the country and spent the night in fields and parks. 

IMPERIAL WAR MUSEUM PHOTOGRAPH ARCHIVE COLLECTION

 (The destruction of the Edwin Davis Store, in front of Holy Trinity Church, Hull. The Zeppelins used bombs in all shapes and sizes)     

6. On 24th September 1917 at 2.50am, the Zeppelin L.41, dropped a total of 16 bombs on South Parade, St James Street, Landsdowne Street and Fountain Street. There was little damage. The only casualty was a chicken which unfortunately was killed. 

7. Tuesday, 12th March 1918, was a dark, cloudy and drizzly night. At about 1.15am the Zeppelin L.63 appeared from Hornsea and dropped six bombs on Hull. These fell on some allotments in Southcoates Avenue, and damaged a large number of glass windows in the locality. Another six bombs fell in Sutton & Swine. The bombs killed a cow, damaged gardens in Cottingham and created a huge crator in Warne. One person died of shock and 3 were injured.

8. The 5th August 1918 was a Bank Holiday and the last recorded raid on Hull. It was very clear night and the Zeppelin arrived at about 1 am. It was caught in the search light and only managed to drop a smoke bomb before it was driven away. There were no casualties.

Hull endured up to 50 air raid warnings between 12th April 1915 to 5th August 1918. Most of the air raid warnings were false alarms, but Hull was unfortunate, as it became a target for many of the air raid attacks by accident when the zeppelins were unable to reach their intended target. The Raids left a trail of death and destruction. The following are some citizen stories reported in the Hull Daily Mail.

6th June 1915.

Mrs Websdale, of 23 Bright Street, said her husband was on duty as a Special Constable. Around midnight a bomb fell on no 30, but it did not wake her son who was asleep in the attic. Two bombs fells on Hewetson & Co's sawmills and reduced it to ruins. The Zeppelin hovered over the area for some time and the Reckitt's factory had a narrow escape from destruction. The extent of damage at the sawmills was £10,000 and a large amount of valuable machinery was destroyed. Mrs Bielby of 1 Church Street, told how she and her family were sleeping, when a bomb dropped at the entrance of the terrace and shook the houses so violently that they had to be rebuilt. A huge hole was made in the ground.

Annie Nix, of 15 East Street, said that a bomb fell at Nos: 10 and 12, killing Jane (45) and George Hill who were in bed. They were taken to St Peter's Church. Edward Jordan (10) of No: 11 Ella Street was also killed and three children Willie, Florrie and Elsie were injured. No automatic alt text available.

Mr Russell of Waller Street, said a bomb fell in the middle of Walter's Terrace, demolishing 4 houses on each side. Eliza Slade (54) was killed at No 4, as were a mother and daughter at No; 3. Florence White (30) and her son George (3) and Alfred Mathews at No:11 were also killed. An incendiary bomb dropped on a house in Ellis Terrace and one woman did not find her three children until a fortnight later, when it was found that they had been badly injured and were in the Naval Hospital on Anlaby Road.

At South Parade, a bomb dropped at No:50, where two children were asleep with their mother. The children were burned to death, but the mother escaped. The children were Maurice (11) and Violet (8) Richardson. Their father was away in the army. Three Houses in St Thomas Terrace, Campbell Street, were wrecked by a bomb falling on No: 2. William Walker (62), and his daughters Alice (30) and Millicent (17), were killed. One of the girls' bodies was blown on to the lower roof of St Thomas's Church, which had a narrow escape from destruction. At Regent Street, an incendiary bomb was seen to fall in the back yard of Mr Francis Ford, of No: 89. He immediately got out of bed and threw a bucket of water on the blazing missile and extinguished it. This action undoubtedly, saved many lives and valuable property. Mr Burns of Wheatly & Co, Mytongate, reported on the attack on the Corn Exchange Hotel. An Incendiary bomb went through the roof, ceiling and sitting room and finished in an upholstered divan chair. No doubt the copper springs in the chair lessened the shock of the fall, averting very serious damage. A fire started at the pub which was quickly extinguished on arrival of the fire brigade.

 No automatic alt text available.Two women survey the damage at Porter Street, Hull  and the crowd survey bomb damage, Campbell Street, Hull.

 

2nd September 1917.

John Ramsden, of Aberdeen Street said he saw the Zeppelin came to Hull from the east, but was driven away by gunfire. He later learned one of its petro tanks had been shot away and found in a field in Hornsea. 

12 March 1918. 

Mrs Ellis, of Whitworth Street, Southcoates Lane, narrowly escaped death. She was walking towards the back door when a bomb fell in the rear garden. She heard a rushing sound and instantly threw herself to the ground, pulling her hat over her eyes. Pieces of the bomb went through the walls behind her, tore a huge piece of stonework from the front bedroom window ledge and threw it into the gateway. Every slate fell from the roof, but Mrs Ellis was unscathed.

Mrs Dick, of 62 Southcoates Avenue, said window frames were blown out and she found a large piece of bomb in her garden. The canary in its cage in front of the window was uninjured and was afterwards nicknamed 'Zeppelin Dick'.

Miss Ellerby, of Southcoates Avenue, was in a cupboard when the bomb dropped. The walls were cracked and doors ripped off. Forty five buckets of debris were carried out of the front room.

As well as a number of Streets bombed and houses destroyed, some principal buildings damaged included Paragon Station, the Naval Hospital, Holy Trinity Church, and Earle’s Shipyard. Prominent Shops such Edwin Davis’s in the Market Place, Messers J Good & Son, and Hewetson’s Saw Mills were destroyed. There were also some narrow misses at Ranks Flour Mill, Monument Bridge, Princes Dock and the new Guildhall. There were occasions were bombs failed to explode at Coltman Street, Bean Street and Argyle Street. In total, 43 Hull people were killed, 13 died of shock and 115 were injured in Zeppelin Air Raids on Hull. Amongst those killed were 21 women and 17 children, including several families. 

In all, Zeppelins made 51 attacks on England, from a total of 159 air raids during the war. These killed 557 and injured another 1,358 people. Among the casualties was Mrs Lena Gilbert Ford, who wrote the patriotic war time song, 'Keep the Home Fires Burning'. Mrs Ford and her thirty-year-old son Walter were the first United States citizens to become fatalities of a German air raid. Their London home being hit by one of two bombs, that No automatic alt text available.fell on the city on 7 March 1918. Mrs. Brown, Ford's mother, was only hurt in the bombing. Their remains were returned to and interred in the United States. In all, more than 5,000 bombs were dropped on towns across Britain, causing £1.5 million in damage. 84 airships took part, of which 30 were lost, either shot 

down or lost in accidents. Aeroplanes carried out 27 raids, dropping 246,774 lb (111,935 kg) of bombs for the loss of 62 aircraft, resulting in 835 deaths, 1,972 injured and £1,418,272 of material damage. The 159 German air raids against England in WWI, resulted in 1,413 deaths and 3,409 injuries, mostly civilians. Damage from Air Raids was estimated to cost some £3 million.   No automatic alt text available.

(Photos shows the destruction at Porter Street and Bright Street (above), Also Queen Street, Humber Dock (below)

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An incendiary bomb hit 102 Great Thornton Street, the home of Harris Needler. In one of its rooms five boys were sleeping, two of them in a bed that was struck by the bomb. In this pic you can see the iron of the bedstead is bent and one of the boys is sitting at the scene of their lucky escape.

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Thomas Sheppard, Hull Museum Curator, with some bombs and Blundell's Steam Whistle, known as 'Big Lizzie' used as an alert for Zeppelin raids in WW1

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Hull Civilians killed in Air Raids during World War One

(Names, Age in brackets and their Address)

June 1915

Maurice Richardson (11)                   -  50 South Parade

Violet Richardson (8)                         – 50 South Parade

Tom Stamford (46)                               -   5 Blanket Row

Ellen Temple (50)                                 - 20 St James Square, St James Street

Elizabeth Picard Foreman (39)        – 37 Walker Street

Sarah Ann Scott (86)                          –      The Poplars, Durham Street

Johanna Harman (67)                        – 93 Arundel Street

Jane Hill (45)                                         - 12 East Street

George Hill (48)                                    - 12 East Street

Eliza Slade (54)                                      - 4 Walter's Terrace, Waller Street

Florence White (30)                               - 3 Waller Street

George Issac White (3)                         - 3 Waller Street

Alfred Mathews (60)                            - 11 Waller Street

William Walker (62)                                - 2  St Thomas Terrace, Campbell Street

Alice Priscilla Walker (30)                    - 2  St Thomas Terrace, Campbell Street

Millicent Walker (17)                              - 2  St Thomas Terrace, Campbell Street

Norman Mullins (10)                           – 39  Blanket Row

George Mullins (15)                            – 39  Blanket Row

William Watson (67)                             - 21 Edwin's Place, Porter Street

Annie Watson (58)                                - 21 Edwin's Place, Porter Street

Georgina Cunningham (27)              – 22 Edwin's Place, Porter Street

Emma Pickering (68)                            -      Sarah's Terrace, Porter Street

Edwin Jordan (10)                                - 11 East Street

Hannah Mitchell (42)                             – 5  Alexandra terrace, Woodhouse Street

March 1916  
Edward Cook (38)                                  –  33 Lukes Street

John Longstaff (71)                               – 6  William's Place, Upper Union Street

Lotte Ingamells (28)                                - 8 The Avenue, Linnaeus Street

Ethel Mary Ingamells (33)                      - 8 The Avenue, Linnaeus Street

Martha Rebecca Ingamells (35)           - 8 The Avenue, Linnaeus Street

Edward Slip (45)                                    - 23 Queen Street

Edward Ledner (89)                              –     Trinity House, Carr Lane (Now the Admiral Pub) 

Robert Cattle  (48)                                    -    Little Humber Street

Frank Cattle (8)                                      -       Little Humber Street

James William Collinson (63)         –    14 Johns Place, Regent Street

George Henry Youell (40)                  –    4  Post Office Entry, High Street

Charlotte Naylor (30)                           – 32 Collier Street

Ruby Naylor(8)                                      – 32 Collier Street

Annie Naylor (6)                                    – 32 Collier Street

Edward Naylor (4)                                – 32 Collier Street

Jeffery Naylor (2)                                  – 32 Collier Street

James Pattison (68)                             – 33 Regent Street

John Smith (30)                                      –  2 Queens Alley, Blackfriargate

August 1916

The Rev, Arthur Wilcockson (86)   -    32 Granville Street

Mary Louise Bearpark (44)               -   35 Selby Street

Emmie Bearpark (14)                           -  35 Selby Street

John Charles Broadley (3)               -     4 Roland Avenue, Arthur Street

Rose Alma Hall (31)                             -  61 Selby Street

Elizabeth Hall (9)                                  -  61 Selby Street

Mary Hall (7)                                           -  61 Selby Street

Charles Lingard (64)                          -   61 Walliker Street

Emma Louise Evers (46)                -     25 Brunswick Avenue, Walliker Street

Esther Stobbart (31)                       –     13 Henry's Terrace, Wassand Street

Died of Shock

William Jones (80)                           –         The Almshouses, Posterngate

Jane Booth (51)                               –       2 Alma Street

Sarah Masterman (58)                   –        9 Humber Avenue, Scarborough Street

William Clarkson (62)                     –        2 Adderbury Grove

Jesse Mathews    (1)                      –      11 Cotton Terrace, Barnsley Street

 

 

Related links

Thank You to Robert Searle from the BBC, the Hull Daily Mail , 'Hull: The Good Old days '(Facbook) and  others for their photographs. See also following Zeppelin Links

 

1. Hull's First, forgotten Blitz - http://www.hulldailymail.co.uk/Hull-Blitz-Zeppelins-brought-horror-WW1-home/story-22054506-detail/story.html

 

2. Kapitanleutnant Heinrich Mathy (1883-1916) - Commander of the L9 Zeppelin which bombed Hull - http://www.gwpda.org/bio/m/mathy.html

 

3. The 100th Aniversary of Zeppelin Raids on Hull http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02syysz

 

Please also find BBC Radio Humberside’s Facebook page, https://www.facebook.com/bbcradiohumberside?fref=ts

 

And the Twitter page, using the hashtag #hullzeppelin throughout the anniversary commemoration, https://twitter.com/RadioHumberside

 

Please get involved how you can. The Zeppelin raid story must be told as part of Hull's history, and social media is the best way of achieving this aim.

 

4. The Hull Zeppelin Raids 1915-18 Paperback – 1 Jun 2014 by Arthur G. Credland (Author)

 

5.http://www.mylearning.org/zeppelin-raids-in-the-humber-during-ww1/p-4738/