Hull was a much smaller and densley packed City during the First World War, than it is today. Most people lived in the City Centre or were crammed around the fish docks of Hessle Road and the warehouses of Wincolmlee. In 1914, Hull's population was around 300,000 people, a much larger number than now. North of the 'Avenues' was open fields. Spring Bank ended at Walton Street and along Willerby Road was open country side. Along Holderness Road, there was not much housing beyond Portobello Street. The new housing estates of Bransholme, Orchard Park, Greatfield, Longhill, Bilton and Ings Road were then just farms. Over 80% of the 66,090 houses in Hull were classified as 'working class' type, with a rent not exceeding £26 per year. Only 28,400 homes were regarded as satisfactory, with adequate light and air circulation and having a yard or garden at the rear with a secondary means of access. Some 21,800 properties, mostly 'terrace' type housing were unsatisfactory, built at a high density of 60 houses per acre, compared with an average of 7 houses to the acre for the City as a whole. They included 2,800 'slum houses' which were old, damp, poorly built and situated in congested districts. Tenants invariably shared a single tap and outside toilets, which were situated together in a communal courtyard. Over 95% of Hull people rented their homes rather than owned them. The homes were largely poor and basic, with little choice, but the rents were cheap. People preferred to live near their place of work and not commute long distances. With no Welfare state and few Council houses, people preferred to live in tightly knit communities where they could support each other or have access to shops and facilities. For the few and wealthy, home ownership outside the city centre, was the most desired and affordable option. Newspapers adverts in 1914 offered a 3 bed house for sale in Anlaby Park for £415 - £435, and 4 bed houses for between £529-£550. After the war, a typical 3 bed semi-detatched house sold for between £540-£740.
Only 1% of Edwardians owned property. Most worked in dark, noisy factories, cut hay in fields, toiled down dirty and dangerous mines; had bones bent by rickets and lungs racked by tuberculosis. Life expectancy then was 49 years for a man and 53 years for a woman, compared with 79 and 82 years today. They lived in back to back tenements or jerry-built terraces, wore cloth caps or bonnets (rather than boaters, bowlers and toppers) and many had never taken a holiday - beyond a day trip to the seaside - in their entire lives.
Britain in 1914.
Very few envisaged the upheavals that were to come when the year began. The biggest troubles Britain faced were domestic and not international. The Liberal government of the day was under attack from all sides.
The government plans to grant home rule to Ireland were being fiercely resisted by Ulster Unionists in the north, who had support from within the upper ranks of the British Army as well as from the opposition Conservatives. In March the news that the government had military plans to put down a possible rebellion in Ulster led to the resignation of 57 Army officers, the so-called Curragh Mutiny. More than a quarter of a million defiant Ulstermen signed a Covenant, pledging to use "all means which may be found necessary to defeat the present conspiracy to set up a home rule parliament in Ireland". The Catholics of the south were armed and organised to match the Protestants of the north.
Ireland wasn't the only crisis that prime minister Herbert Asquith faced in 1914. The Suffragettes, fighting for votes for women, were intensifying their campaign. In March Mary Richardson slashed the Velasquez painting the Rokeby Venus at the National Gallery in London. In April, a Suffragette armed with a hatchet broke 10 large panes of glass in a cabinet at the British Museum. Across the country Suffragettes set fire to empty houses and railway stations, piers and sports pavilions and vandalised golf courses. In June they were thought to be behind a bomb exploding in Westminster Abbey, damaging the Coronation Chair.slam and in cricket batsman Jack Hobbs helped England to a 4-0 series win in South Africa.
Middle Class Leisure in 1914
Middle class people played games like lawn tennis and snooker. Board games like snakes and ladders and ludo were also popular. In 1914 bicycling was a popular sport. The safety bicycle went on sale in 1885. Bicycling clubs became common.
Reading was also popular in 1914. The first Sherlock Holmes story A Study in Scarlet was published in 1887 by Arthur Conan Doyle. A new form of writing was science fiction pioneered by men like H G Wells. Cosswords which had been been invented in 1913 by Arthur Wynne, became a craze. The first dress patterns were launced in 1914 inspriing new fashions and designs. Mary Phelps Jacob had just invented the first bra. Women were abandoning the corset for more free flowing clothes, and newspapers remarked that women were now seen in public without wearing hats! Tinned food and cookery books were all the rage. The new century introduced commodities, such as tinned food, Bisto gravy, Heinz baked beans and Bird’s custard, and ice closets to put it all in. Food could be shipped from distant corners of the world and chains of high street grocery stores were replacing small specialist tradesmen. Previously a cook’s life was ruled by Mrs Beeton and Alexis Soyer, seasonal food and a lack of refrigeration. Now ther were new publications like 'Hints and Recipes for Cooking Today', 'The Atora Book of Olde Time Christmas Recipes', 'Kitchen Essays', 'The Importance of Eating Potatoes'. These were all designed to educate a new breed of woman who, owing to economic privations, was having to go it alone in the kitchen often without benefit of cook or scullery maid.
The Middle class were very fond of the theater. However the cinema was a new pastime although films were silent and in black and white. Around 1910 cinemas were built in many towns. In February 1914, Charlie Chaplin made his film debut in the silent comedy 'Making A Living'. In April, George Bernard Shaw's play Pygmalion opened to rave reviews. Among notable books were James Joyce's 'Dubliners', 'Tarzan Of The Apes' by Edgar Rice Burroughs and Robert Tressel's 'The Ragged Trousered Philanthropists'.
In 1914, going to the seaside was very popular with those who could afford it. Meanwhile the first cheap camera was invented in 1888 by George Eastman. Afterwards photography became a popular hobby.
In 1914, middle class children in Britain had plenty of toys. They played with wood or porcelain dolls and toys like Noah's arks with wooden animals. Poor children did not have any toys. Plasticine was invented in 1897 by William Harbutt. It was first made commercially in 1900. Also in 1900 Frank Hornby invented a toy called meccano.
THE WORKING CLASS IN 1914
For the working class in 1914, life was hard and terrible poverty was common. Nevertheless life was improving and certain reforms were introduced around that time.
At the beginning of the 20th century, surveys showed that 25% of the population of Britain were living in poverty. They found that at least 15% were living at subsistence level. They had just enough money for food, rent, fuel and clothes. They could not afford 'luxuries' such as newspapers, sweets or public transport. About 10% were living in below subsistence level and could not afford an adequate diet.
The surveys found that the main cause of poverty was low wages. The main cause of extreme poverty was the loss of the main breadwinner. If dad was dead, ill or unemployed, it was a disaster. Mum might get a job, but women were paid much lower wages than men.
Surveys also found that poverty tended to go in a cycle. Working class people might live in poverty when they were children, but things usually improved when they left work and found a job. However, when they married and had children things would take a turn for the worse. Their wages might be enough to support a single man comfortably, but not enough to support a wife and children too. However when the children grew old enough to work things would improve again. Finally, when he was old, a worker might find it hard to find work, except the most low paid kind and be driven into poverty again.
A Liberal government was elected in 1906 and they made some reforms. From that year poor children were given free school meals. In January 1909 the first old age pensions were paid. They were hardly generous - only 5 shillings a week, which was a paltry sum even in those days and they were only paid to people over 70. Nevertheless it was a start.
Also in 1909 the government formed wages councils. In those days some people worked in the so-called 'sweated industries' such as making clothes and they were very poorly paid and had to work extremely long hours just to survive. The wages councils set minimum pay levels for certain industries.
In 1910 the first labour exchanges where jobs were advertised were set up. However the economy was stable in the years 1900-1914 and unemployment was fairly low.
Nevertheless in 1911 the government passed an act establishing sickness benefits for workers. The act also provided unemployment benefit for workers in certain trades such as shipbuilding, where periods of unemployment were common. Meanwhile the workers had formed powerful trade unions.
Working Class Homes in 1914
In 1914 a typical working class family lived in a 'two up, two down'. They had two rooms downstairs and two upstairs. The downstairs front room was kept for best. The family kept their best furniture and ornaments in this room. They spent most of the their time in the downstairs back room, which served as a kitchen and living room. In 1914 working class homes were lit by gas. Most working class homes had outside lavatories. From about 1900 some houses were built for skilled workers with bathrooms and inside toilets. However they were still rare in 1914. Moreover very poor families sometimes lived in just one room.
Food in 1914
Food was expensive in 1914 and some working class families sat down to tea of a plate of potatoes and malnutrition was common among poor children. Food was also expensive. In 1914 a working class family spent about 60% of their income on food. Moreover sweets were a luxury in 1914. However, for those who could afford it new types of biscuit were available. The Digestive was invented in 1892. Custard creams were invented in 1908 and Bourbons were invented in 1910.
Transport in 1914
In 1914 railways were the main form of overland transport. Cars were very rare although number plates were introduced in 1903. The same year a 20 MPH speed limit was introduced. Most towns had electric trams. In many towns by 1914 there were also motor buses and Hull had it's own trams.
Working Class Leisure in 1914
In 1914 the average working week in Britain was 54 hours. By then many people only worked half a day on Saturday. Skilled workers often had paid holidays, but most people only had bank holidays. Nevertheless the working class were starting to have more leisure time and football matches became a popular pastime. Many towns had free public libraries. Newspapers also became much more common. The Daily Mail was first published in 1896, The Daily Express was first published in 1900 and the Daily Mirror began publication in 1903.
By 1914 life expectancy in Britain was about 50 for a man and about 54 for a woman.
The war lasted 1,566 days - four years, 3 months and one week. During this time, over 7,000 Hull men were killed. Another 14,000 were wounded, of which 7,000 were maimed and this rose to 20,000 wounded by 1924. On average, there were 15 war deaths received in Hull every day. These casualties including the wounded accumulated almost every day, for four and half long years. Some days were worse than others.
For example, on the the 3rd May 1915, eight Hull Trawlers were sunk by German submarines. On the 13th November 1916, 247 Hull men died, when the East Yorkshire battalions attacked the village of Serre: Another 139 Hull men died on the 3rd May 1917, when the 'Hull Pal' attacked Oppy Wood: 91 Hull men died on the 1st July 1916; the first day of the Battle of the Somme. 127 Hull men died between the 21st and 23rd March 1918 during the great German Offensive.
The returning wounded reminded civilians of the brutality of war. They were often amputees, mutilated, or with appalling facial injuries. Many houses with drawn dark curtains, marked a casualty. It seemed every family had lost someone or knew someone that had been killed in the war. Civilians in dark mourning dress were highly visible.
Men physically and mentally broken, or young men who had sacrificed their apprenticeships to go to war, now faced unemployment at home. Rationing of food and basic goods added to the community tension. There were no psychologists or social workers to treat the victims of shell shock or the large numbers of bereaved. Many families had to cope as best they could.
Newspapers are full of violent incidents and anti social behaviour, caused by illness, poverty and the untreated madness or war casualties. Initial enthusiasm for the war quickly gave way to sadness and shock and a deepening psychological affect on the civilian population. Returning Servicemen had been assured a 'Land Fit for Heroes', only to find unemployment, austerity and indifference.
Every aspect of homelife was affected by the war. The 'Hull Times', showed how Hull's 2,128 allotments, (over 280 acres), were cultivated for food production. The railways and trams were given priority for war business. Buildings were taken over for recruiting, for wounded, 'soldiers' rest places and even 'social clubs'.
The Soldiers Club based at Beverley Road baths had a library, weekly concerts, a rifle range, a reading room, writing facities and refreshment bars. So popular and well known was the club that soldiers wrote about it in newspapers all over the country.
Hull Residents set up a number of funds to help the war effort. Among these was the Christmas pudding fund for local soldiers, that helped raise 5,000 shillings, helping feed 10,000 Hull men at the Somme. Another was a national fund to help East Yorkshire soldiers at the Somme. It received donations from across Britain and raised £250 to help the men at the front. Hull theatres helped the war effort by providing entertainment. One such show was named "The King visits his troops on the Somme Front". It was an officially made short, from the War Office, and showed at various theatres, including the Theatre De Luxe. Other theatres, such as Sherburn Theatre, in Sherburn Street, east Hull, showed "The Battle of the Somme", a five-part movie featuring graphic war images from the frontline.
Demographically, Hull's population fell by 45,000 people during the war, such was the rate of male enistment into the armed services. Women replaced many men in the workplace, and in Hull, women found new jobs in the Post Office, railways, trams and factories. The Hull Daily Mail ran articles on women's war work, saying "they were being trained in ship building, the dock yard, transport and munitions," as well as growing food, postal work, telegraph messengers and even taxi driving. The National Union of Women Workers, organised voluntary patrols in Hull, acting as a 'morality' police force, curbing crime and prostitution. Joesph Rank Ltd employed nearly 3,000 women in wheat production. Rose Down and Thompson Munition's factories employed 359 women, 13 under 18 years of age and 341 between 18 and 51 years old. Madam Clapham's, dress making salon at Hull's Kingston Theatre Hotel, employed another 150 women. They redesigned women's clothing to make war fashion more comfortable, modern and easier to wear. Madam Clapham - http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02b1136
Women entered the armed forces in 1917, in non combatant roles, so releasing men to fight. Many women also became V.A.D.'s (Voluntary Aid Detachments), working as nurses. In Hull, Reckitt's had their own hospital with 45 beds, and there was also a Naval hospital at Argyle Street, with room for 220 patients. The Report of the East Yorkshire Women's Agricultural Committees, shows 600-700 women registered for land work. In total, 928 Hull women did some type of work on farms, alloments or market gardens. Male labour was not scarce and there was a strong prejudice against women.
It is well known, that many young people lied about their age, to enlist in the war. It is perhaps less well known, that nearly 1,200 Hull teenagers, died in acton during the First World War. Searching by age, on this data base, shows that Hull's war casualties, included, three, 14 year olds; sixteen, 15 year olds; forty two, 16 year olds; eighty two, 17 year olds; three hundred and forty, 18 year olds; and six hundred and ninety, 19 year olds. Children also played an active part in the war effort at home. Boy Scouts, guarded telephone and telegraph lines, railway stations, water reservoirs or any location that might be militarily important. From late 1917 many Scouts assisted with air raid duties, including sounding the all-clear signal after an attack . Girl Guides packaged up clothing to send to British soldiers at the front, prepared hostels and first-aid dressing stations for use by those injured in air raids or accidents, tended allotments to help cope with food shortages, and provided assistance at hospitals, government offices and munitions factories. Sea Scouts were part of a network of observers that stood watch on the coast in anticipation of German air attacks or a possible invasion. Children across Britain gave their pocket money to the war effort. The children raised money for a number of charities, including St Dunstan's Hostel for blinded ex-servicemen, the Blue Cross for sick and injured animals, and local military hospitals. Children also collected scrap metal and other essential materials that could be recycled or used for the war effort. Children younger than the school leaving age of 12 also worked in factories or on farms. In some cases, a child's earnings could be a helpful addition to a family's income. In 1917, Education Minister H A L Fisher claimed that as many as 600,000 children had been 'prematurely' put to work.
Air Raids and Trawler losses.
On the 3rd May 1915, Hull mourned the loss of eight trawlers on one day. On the 6th June 1915, Hull civilians experienced the first of eight bombing raids by Zeppelins. The next day Anti German riots broke out through out Hull and many German owned businesses were damaged. Hull was the scene of one of the most moving funeral possessions of the war, when the victims of the E13 disaster were brought ashore. The E13 submarine had left England on 15th August 1915, for deployment in the Baltic. On 18th August it ran aground in the narrow waters between Denmark and Sweden, whilst sailing on the surface. A German destroyer opened fire on her, badly damaging her before being stopped by Danish motor boats. Whilst transferring survivors to Danish ships, the Germans continued to torpedo the submarine which blew up. Fifteen men died in the incident, which caused world wide outrage, as it occurred in neutral Danish waters. (Denmark later gained an official apology from Germany). The bodies arrived in Hull for transport to their home towns on 27th August 1915. The next day, a funeral procession for the E13 victims, passed through a packed Victoria Square, en route for Paragon Station. Of the dead, one was a local man, Herbert Staples, an engine room artificer. His body was taken home to Grimsby by tug.
Cinemas, Halls and Picture shows
The 'Tower' Cinema, opened in June 1914 on Anlaby Road as a a Picture Palace to entertain audiences in World War One. It was one of 30 cinemas in Hull. Viewers walked into a venue holding 1,200 seats across stalls and a single balcony with a cafe that overlooked the street outside. The Tower not only entertained cinema-goers with the latest silent movie, but offered audiences a window on news in Europe, showcased events for recruitment and presented patriotic films produced to raise money for the local war Trust. During WW1, the Tower played a host of patriotic films including 'The Heroine of Mons' and even a live concert in 1915. Cinema not only changed the Hull's perception of war, but turned the experience of going to the cinema into a desirable, class-free commodity that is still much loved today.
Hull's Royal Visit
On the 13th June 1917, King George V and his wife Queen Mary, visited Hull, driving through the City in an open carriage. Huge crowds came out to see them and Hull was decorated with flags, bunting and streamers. The Royal visit took in a number of sites including Earle's shipyard, the Holmes engineering works, the VAD hospital on Cottingham Road and the naval hospital on Argyle Street. They also went to Hull City football ground and met members of the Volunteer Forces.
Video of the Kings Visit to Hull - http://www.britishpathe.com/video/king-george-v-visit-to-hull/query/Hull
The Government introduced new laws to help pay for and win the war. This started with the 'Defence of the Realm Act or (DORA) in 1914'. Basic tax increased from 6% to 30% and the number of people in Britain who paid tax, tripled to 3.5 million. Clocks went forward to make the most of daylight hours. The Government took over coal mines, shipping, railways and land to secure supplies and food production. It set up 'state run', munitions factories and worked with Trade Unions to prevent strikes. All beaches along the East Coast were closed during the war.
Trivial peacetime activities which were banned, included using fireworks, flying kites, starting bonfires, buying binoculars, feeding wild animals bread, discussing naval and military matters or buying alcohol on public transport. People were not allowed to whistle for a Taxis in case this sounded like an air raid alarm, or loiter around railways and tunnels. You could not spread rumours, trespass on railway lines and bridges, ring church bells, melt down gold, or silver, or use invisible ink when writing abroad. Alcoholic beverages were watered down and pub opening times were restricted to noon–3pm and 6:30pm–9:30pm (the requirement for an afternoon gap in permitted hours, lasted in England until the Licensing Act 1988 was brought into force). The law was designed to help prevent invasion and to keep morale at home high. It imposed censorship of journalism and of letters coming home from the front line. The press was subject to controls on reporting troop movements, numbers or any other operational information that could be exploited by the enemy. People who breached the regulations with intent to assist the enemy could be sentenced to death. It is estimated that almost one million people were arested for breacing DORA rules and 11 'German Spies' were executed under the regulations. Though some provisions of Dora may seem strange, they
did have their purposes. Flying a kite or lighting a bonfire could attract Zeppelins, and after rationing was introduced in 1917, feeding wild animals was a waste of food. The DORA legislation was amended six times during the war to increase social control, help prevent invasion and keep moral high.
In Hull, income tax increased as did the number of people paying it. While wages improved, many goods were more expensive and unaffordable. Income tax increased five times between 1914-1918 and was paid by twice as many people. It would never fall to pre-war levels again. Curfews were introduced and their was censorship of letters and newspapers. Germans living in the City could be interned. Pubs shut at 11pm for the first time, and 'treating' or buying your friends a round of drinks was banned. New factories were built with work canteens, wash rooms for women and even creches for children of working mothers. Exempted trades or reserved occupations were introduced. On 27th January, 1916, there was compulsory conscription of single men, aged between 18 and 41 years. Four months later, this conscription was extended to married men. In May 1916, clocks were brought forward for the first time, to maximise working daylight hours. 'Blackouts' were introduced in certain towns to protect against air raids. People were fined or faced imprisonment for breaking any one of hundreds of new regulations. In Hull, fines of 10 shilling and sixpence were imposed for breaching lighting restrictions, and £5 fines were not uncommon.
During the war, prices increased on all the basics: rent, fuel and clothing, as well as food. However, food prices increased sharply and continously throughout the war, sometimes at an alarming rate. Food prices overall rose by 60%, sugar, eggs and meat increased by 400%. Food became a growing concern for people, not just the quantity, but the quality. There were no fridges or freezers to preserve food, all food was perishible, and therefore had to be brought fresh and daily. Food became increasingly scarce due to enemy attacks on shipping and a poor harvest in 1916. These shortages provoked frustration, food queues and hoarding. Parliament announced in 1916 that there were only six weeks of food left in the country. Despite appeals for people to cut down on food, potatoes, sugar, butter and margarine were in great demand and very scarce. Due to serious shortages, food rationing was introduced to ensure a fair distribution of food to everyone. In February 1918, Britain and Hull experienced rationing of food for the first time. This started with sugar, and then restrictions on meat, butter, cheese and margerine. Ration coupons were issued to control rising food prices and share out limited food supplies fairly. Ration cards were issued and people registered with a local butcher or grocer. The weekly ration was set at 15 ounces of meat, five ounces of bacon and four ounces of butter or margarine. With rationing, queues disappeared and everyone received a fair share. Prices kept high, but the threat of shortages was beaten.
The Government set up 363 'National Kitchens', including one in Hull, to feed people during World War One. These improved diets, cut down food waste and proved hugely popular. A bowl of soup, a joint of meat and a portion of side vegetables cost 6d - just over £1 in today's money. Puddings, scones and cakes could be bought for as little as 1d (about 18p). These self-service restaurants, run by local workers and partly funded by government grants, offered simple meals at subsidised prices. A 1918 'Scarborough Post' story about the national kitchen in Hull emphasised the ambition of the typical urban outlet: "The place has the appearance of being a prosperous confectionery and cafe business. The business done is enormous."
Armistice & Street Parties.
Hull Citizens celebrated the end on the war on the 11th November 1918. The final 'Hull Pals' returned to the City on the 26th May 1919. Official 'Street Parties' were held across Hull on the 19th July 1919 to mark the official Peace. There were wild celebrations and relief that over four years of struggle were finally over. With this relief, there was also sorrow at the large loss of live. Hull alone had lost over 7,500 men in the war, with another 14,000 disabled from an estimeated 70,000, who had served in the forces. To aid the disabled and the families of the dead, Hull established it's own War Trust to raise money and by 1927, 1,040 recipients had received £74,000 between them. The war had affected everyone in some way, and the life for many could never be the same again.
Housing and new Homes for Heroes
There was also severe shortage of housing in Hull. War time conditions had prevented new house building and allowed only the minimum of essential repairs. As a result, the general standard of housing in 1919 was well below that of 1914. It was estimated that in 1919, a total of 5,000 new houses were required in Hull, to meet the arrears over the period of the war. A further 2,578 were needed to rehouse people living in unhealthy areas, and another 200 to rehouse those living in individually, unfit houses, in different parts of Hull. The 1919 (Addison) Housing Act helped established Hull's first Housing Committee and made the Council the chief provider of new housing. As a start towards meeting this shortage of 7,778 houses, Hull City Council purchased three areas of land on the northern, western and eastern outskirts of the City to errect housing estates. These became known respectively as the Bricknell Avenue, Gipsyville and Preston Road estates and house building began in the 1920's.
On most estates, houses were provided with a generous sized garden to encourage tenants to grow their own vegetables, a privet hedge at the front and an apple tree at the back. The interiors varied, some having a parlour, but all with a scullery and bath.
For most new tenants, these new conditions were a huge improvement on their previous slum housing, where they had experienced overcrowding and often were without even basic facilities. The quality of the new housing was generally high. Although some slum clearance took place during the 1920s, much of the emphasis of this period, was to provide new general needs housing, on greenfield sites. The new houses had electricity, inside toilets, fitted baths and front and back gardens. The Council had strict rules for new tenants on housework, house and garden maintenance, children’s behaviour and the keeping of pets.
The 1919 Housing Act, made housing a national responsibility, and local authorities were given the task of developing new housing and rented accommodation where it was needed by working people. The 1919 Housing (Addison) Act (named after Dr. Christopher Addison, the Health Minister) was passed initially as a temporary measure to help meet housing need, when private builders could not meet the demand. It was generally assumed that the private sector would resume responsibility for working class housing once the British economy had recovered. The 1919 Act provided 213,000 new Council homes across the country. Although insufficient to meet the National need, it was a marked increase on the 24,000 'social' homes that existed in 1914.
Godfrey Mitchell, a demobbed Royal Engineer Officer, that had served in France, acquired the Wimpey Home Construction business and built many private homes in Hull during the 1930's. The Woolwich Building Society lent 90% mortgages and allowed people for the first time to buy their homes. After the war, a typical 3 bed semi-detatched house sold for between £540-£740. Buyers needed a 5% deposit, with repayments at around 26 shillings a week and buyers were given a Government subsidy of £50 as a further incentive. Most of Hull''s new council estates, provided good quality housing for the better off, working classes, but did not provide a solution for the poorer people in society. Rents were relatively high and subletting was forbidden, so naturally the tenants in the best position to pay were selected. High rents sometimes meant difficulty in paying, as more applicants from unskilled occupations were housed.
The Short Lived Planning Legacy of WW1 -http://www.lawgazette.co.uk/analysis/comment-and-opinion/the-short-lived-planning-legacy-of-the-great-war/5042532.article